- Kawachi Province
, was established. With the downfall of Dōkyō, the prior system was restored the following year.
The provincial capital was in Shiki District, which is believed to have been at by
Hosokawa Masamotoand Hatakeyama Yoshitoyo, but his son Hisayoshi was in Kishū attempting to recoup for another attack; finally, they succeeded in making a comeback as the shugo of Kawachi and Kishū, and Hisayoshi’s son Tanenaga ultimately managed to destroy Yoshihide of Yoshinari’s line, once again consolidating the house of Hatakeyama. However, through all this, Kawachi had been the battleground, and had essentially been reduced to scorched earth.
Sengoku period, the consolidated Kawachi was the asset of Hatakeyama Tanenaga, but the real power was imbued in the shugodai, a title that passed into the hands of Yusa Naganori: the shugocame to be reduced to a mere figurehead. Moreover, the " kanrei" house of Hosokawa continued to face internal strife; in addition to the Hosokawa inheritance dispute between Takakuni, Sumimoto, and Sumiyuki, the son of Sumimoto (the victor of that conflict) Harumoto attacked and overthrew the shugodai in Sakai who played an active role in the Hosokawa clan’s internal strife, Miyoshi Motonaga.
bakufu, which was an asset for Harumoto, had been preserved, but Miyoshi’s son Nagayoshi proceeded to the capital from Awa; while he accepting a wife from the shugodai of Kawachi who had the "de facto" power (Yusa Naganori) and received other such favors of power, in subordination to Harumoto, but not in subordination to the wishes of Harumoto, he played an active role in such things as attacking Kizawa Nagamasain Takaida (in modern Kashiwara, Osaka).
However, being in opposition later on, Nagayoshi would fight his grand-uncle in Harumoto’s faction,
Miyoshi Masanaga, in dispute over Kawachi Jū Nana Kashoat places like Enami Castle, going on to break down Harumoto’s controlled political power; the shogun was reduced to a figurehead and along with seizing the real power of the bakufu, he transferred the stronghold from Akutagawa Mountain Castlein Settsu to Iimori Mountain Castlein Kawachi (Shijōnawate, Osaka).
But even Nagayoshi had to pass away at the age of 42, and afterwards retainers were in conflict (the
Miyoshi triumvirateand Matsunaga Hisahide), making a battleground of Kawachi and Yamato. The event that finally closed the period and these conflicts was Oda Nobunaga’s procession to the capital. Azuchi-Momoyama period
Upon his ascension to the capital, Oda Nobunaga gave the task of governing the northern half of Kawachi to
Miyoshi Yoshitsugu, and that of the southern half to Hatakeyama Akitaka(his son-in-law). However, they both fell in the conflicts around the Genkiera, and control of Kawachi fell to Oda’s chief vassal Sakuma Nobumori. But even Nobumori would later be shunned and banished by Nobunaga.
Whe Oda died in the
Incident at Honnō-ji, Hashiba Hideyoshi, who attacked Akechi Mitsuhideat the battle of Yamazaki, as a result of the Kiyosu Conference, came to control the province.
Hideyoshi came to rule all Japan, and when
Osaka Castlewas built, Wakae Castle, which had once been an important spot in Kawachi, became derelict.
After the death of Hideyoshi, the
Battle of Sekigaharaensued, and Tokugawa Ieyasubecame ruler of all Japan: the Seii Taishōgun; he opened his " bakufu", but as Kawachi was Toyotomi Hideyori’s fiefdom, it was not entered into the " bakuhan taisei".
When Tokugawa Ieyasu and Toyotomi Hideyori had their showdown at the
Siege of Osaka, Kawachi also became a battleground. This fight had a winter and a summer campaign, but since the winter campaign was a battle around Osaka Castle, Kawachi was not a war location then. The aspect of the summer campaign was completely turned about, and the outer moat of Osaka Castle was buried, leaving the castle exposed; the Osaka side judged a siege defense to be impossible, and intercepted Tokugawa’s side going from Kyoto to Osaka in the field. Therefore, fights occurred at various places in Kawachi, it being between Kyoto and Osaka. The primary battles that developed were the Battle of Dōmyōji(Gotō Matabee vs. Date Masamune, Matsudaira Tadateru, and Mizuno Katsunari; Sanada Yukimura, Kitagawa Nobukatsu, and Susukida Kanesukevs. Date Masamune, Matsudaira Tadateru, and Mizuno Katsunari) and the battle of Yao and Wakae( Kimura Shigenarivs. Ii Naotaka; Chōsokabe Morichikavs. Tōdō Takatora).
Edo period, Kawachi was dotted with tenryōas well as hatamoto. As for daimyo, there were only two: the Hōjō of Sayama Domainand the Takagi of Tannan Domain. In addition, the Inaba of Yodo Domainhad many territories.
Tajihi District( Tanboku District, Tannan District, Yakami District)
Meiji era reorganization
Kitakawachi District– on 1 April 1896, the Matta, Katano, and Sasara districts were integrated, making the former Kawachi Province’s northern portion a single district.
Nakakawachi District– on 1 April 1896, the Tanboku, Takayasu, Ōgata, Kawachi, Wakae, and Shibukawa districts, along with part of Shiki District (Mikimoto Village) were integrated, making the former Kawachi Province’s central portion a single district.
*Minamikawachi District – on
1 April 1896, the Tannan, Asukabe, Furuichi, Yakami, Nishigori, and Ishikawa districts, along with part of Shiki District (all but Mikimoto Village) were integrated, making the former Kawachi Province’s southern portion a single district.
*672, August – Kume
*708, April –
Ishikawa no Iwatari
*724 – c. 749 –
Kudara no Konikishi Kyōfuku(self-styled)
*746, April –
Ōtomo no Koshibi(dismissed)
Yamato no Nagaoka
*769, November –
Fujiwara no Momokawa
*790, April –
Ōtomo no Otomaro
*806, February –
Kudara no Koniki Shikyōjin
*817, July –
Fujiwara no Otsugu
*878, February –
Abe no Fusakami
*?–1333 – someone from the
Kō no Moroyasu
Kō no Morihide
*1359–1360 – Hatakeyama Kunikiyo
*1441–1455 – Hatakeyama Mochikuni
*1467 – Hatakeyama Yoshinari
Hatakeyama Ariuji/ Hatakeyama Masakuni
*1542–1545 – Hatakeyama Tanenaga
*1545–1550 – Hatakeyama Masakuni
*1568–1569 – Hatakeyama Takamasa
Though Kawachi was a very small province, many important people in ancient and medieval Japan had to do with the area and the decisive moments in Japanese history that took place there or around it.
Mononobe no Moriya– From the Mononobe clanpowerful in ancient times, he was part of the anti-Buddhist faction, and defeated by the allied forces of Soga no Umakoand Prince Shōtoku.
Kudara no Konikishi clan– Descendants of the royal house of Baekje, and a noble family of ancient times based in Kawachi.
Fujii clan– An ancient family originally from Korea based in Kawachi. Likely progenitors of Jing Zhencheng.:* Jing Zhencheng– A student who studied abroad in Tang. His grave marker was discovered in the suburbs of Chang'an(modern Xian).
Takamuko clan– An ancient noble family of Kawachi that produced many diplomats and statesmen such as Takamuko no Kuromaro.
Kawachi Imoji– A group of medieval metal-working experts based in Tannan District.
Mizuhai clan– Bushiof Kawachi descended from a priest of Hiraoka Shrine(Kawachi’s ichinomiya), and descendants of the Hiraoka Muraji.
Kawachi Genji– A branch of the warrior clan Minamoto. They were based in Kawachi, and at their peak controlled the eastern samurai.:* Minamoto no Yorinobu– The commander who put down Taira no Tadatsune's Rebellion. Founder and leader of the Kawachi Genji.:* Minamoto no Yoriyoshi– The commander who overcame the Abe clanin the Zenkunen War. Second-generation leader of the Kawachi Genji.:* Minamoto no Yoshiie– A commander in the Zenkunen and Gosannen wars. Third-generation leader of the Kawachi Genji.:* Minamoto no Yoshitada– Fourth son of Yoshiie, "kami" of Kawachi, fourth-generation leader of the Kawachi Genji. Assassinated by his uncle Minamoto no Yoshimitsu.:* Minamoto no Yoshitoki– Sixth son of Yoshiie, defended the inherited land of the Minamoto clan. Progenitor of the Ishikawa clan, among others.
Ishikawa clan– A line derived from Yoshitoki’s third son Minamoto no Yoshimoto, taking its name from Ishikawa in Kawachi.
Kawachi clan– Family name taken by Kawachi "kami" and such.
Kusunoki clan– A local family of Kawachi, offshoot of the Tachibana clanthrough being anti-Shogunist.:* Kusunoki Masashige– General who fought against the Kamakura shogunate. For his loyalty towards the emperor, he earned the name “Dainankō”.:* Kusunoki Masatsura– Son of Masashige. For succeeding his father in his efforts, he received the name “Shōnankō”.:* Kusunoki Masanori– Successor of Masatsura.:* Kusunoki Masasue– Masashige’s younger brother. Commited suicide with his brother at the battle of Minatogawa.
Kainoshō clan– Offspring of Kusunoki Masasue; served the Hatakeyama and Tokugawa clans.
Hatakeyama clan– Offshoot of the Ashikaga clan, and one of the three Kanrei; a notable family that produced many Kawachi Province shugo.:* Hatakeyama Mitsuie– Kawachi " shugo" and Muromachi shogunate kanrei.:* Hatakeyama Mochikuni– Son of Mitsuie; Kawachi "shugo" and Muromachi shogunate kanrei.:* Hatakeyama Masanaga– Nephew and adopted son of Mochikuni; Kawachi "shugo" and Muromachi shogunate kanrei. Died in dispute with the shogunate.:* Hatakeyama Hisayoshi– Son of Masanaga; Kawachi "shugo".:* Hatakeyama Tanenaga– Son of Hisayoshi; Kawachi "shugo" but puppet of " shugodai" Yusa Naganori.:* Hatakeyama Takamasa– Younger brother of Tanenaga; Kawachi "shugo" and anti-Miyoshi vanguard.:* Hatakeyama Akitaka– Younger brother of Tanenaga; followed in Takamasa’s footsteps but was defeated by the Yusa.:* Hatakeyama Yoshinari– True son of Mochikuni; Kawachi "shugo" and regarded as a great commander.:* Hatakeyama Yoshitoyo– Son of Yoshinari; though he defeated Masanaga in the Meiō Coup, he was defeated by Hisayoshi in a comeback.:* Hatakeyama Yoshihide– Son of Yoshitoyo.
Hosokawa Katsumoto– " Shugo" of Settsu, Tanba, and Yamashiro among others. Also a " kanrei".
Hosokawa Masamoto– Son of Katsumoto and a "kanrei".:* Hosokawa Sumimoto– Adopted son of Masamoto.:* Hosokawa Takakuni– Adopted son of Masamoto.:* Hosokawa Sumiyuki– Adopted son of Masamoto.
Hosokawa Harumoto– Son of Sumimoto; "kanrei". Political power collapsed when defeated by Miyoshi Nagayoshi.
Hosokawa Ujitsuna– Takakuni’s orphan. Shouldered the anti-Harumoto faction.
Yusa Naganori– " Shugodai" of Kawachi. Seized the real power of the Hatakeyama and reduced them to a Sengoku daimyō.
Miyoshi clan– Sengoku daimyō. Originally the "shugo" of Awa Province; became the lords of Iimori Mountain Castlein Kawachi.:* Miyoshi Nagayoshi– Hegemon; a commander that expanded power to Awa, Tosa, Iyo, Sanuki, Awaji, Harima, Settsu, Tanba, Yamashiro, Kawachi, and Yamato.:* Miyoshi Yoshitsugu– After the death of Nagayoshi, he inherited the family hardship, but the house of Miyoshi fell apart.:* Miyoshi Yasunaga– Nagayoshi’s uncle. Lord of Takaya Castle.:* Miyoshi Masanaga– Grand-uncle of Nagayoshi.:* Miyoshi triumvirate– A triple alliance in the house of Miyoshi between Iwanari Tomomichi, Miyoshi Masayasu, and Miyoshi Nagayasu.
Kizawa Nagamasa– A Sengoku daimyōwho temporarily held Yamato and Kawachi.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi– Shogun and ruler of all Japan who succeeded Oda Nobunaga.
Toyotomi Hideyori– Son of Hideyoshi; supreme commander of the western army in the Siege of Osaka.
Sanada Yukimura– Second son of Sanada Masayukiof the Shinshū Sanada. Took the Osaka side in the siege of Osaka and banished to Kudoyama.
Gotō Mototsugu– Commander with long service; was a chief vassal of the Kuroda clan, but opposed Kuroda Nagamasa. On the Osaka side in the Siege of Osaka.
Chōsokabe Morichika– Fourth son of Chōsokabe Motochika; after his father’s death, he inherited the family responsibility and fought for the Toyotomi side at the Battle of Sekigaharaand Siege of Osaka.
Kimura Shigenari– A young talent of the Toyotomi side in opposition to the bakufu.
Iijima Saburōemon– A peasant of Takaida in Kawachi Province who served Shigenari, he died in action at the Battle of Wakae.
Yamaguchi Hirosada– Son of Yamaguchi Munenaga; a subordinate commander for Shigenari, and husband of Shigenari’s younger sister; the vanguard at the Battle of Wakae, where he died in the intense fighting.
Yasui Dōton– The man who dug (and whose name graces) Dōtonbori; may have also been born in Kawachi.
Shuntokumaru– A man said to be from Takayasu District. The subject of various theatre productions.
Naka Jinbee– The village headman who re-routed the Yamato River.
List of Provinces of Japan
Kami of Kawachi– The "kokushi" of the province.
Sayama Domain– Belonged to the Hōjō (descendants of Hōjō Soun).
Tannan Domain– Belonged to the Takagi clan.
Yodo Domain– Belonged to the Inaba clan(into which Lady Kasugawas married).
Cotton– Kawachi cotton was popular from the early Edo perioduntil before World War II; it was Kawachi’s top industry.
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