- Buddhism in Europe
Although there was regular contact between practising Buddhists and Europeans in antiquity the former had little direct impact. In the latter half of the 19th century, Buddhism came to the attention of Western intellectuals and during the course of the following century the number of adherents has grown. There are now over 3 million Buddhists in Europe, the majority in
Franceand the United Kingdom. Fact|date=April 2008
European contact with Buddhismfirst began after Alexander the Great's conquest of northwestern India in the 3rd century BC. Greek colonists in the region adopted Indian Buddhism and syncretized it with aspects of their own culture to make a sect called Greco-Buddhismwhich dominated the area of ancient Indiacompromising modern day Pakistanand eastern Afghanistanfor several centuries. Emperor Ashokasent Buddhistmissionaries to the Hellenistic world, where they established centers in places such as Alexandria, creating a noted presence in the region. Many prominent Hellenistic writers were well aware of Buddhistlore and tradition and wrote about it in detail. Some scholars believe that later Greek philosophers may have borrowed from the teachings of the Buddha and that Jesus Christwas influenced by certain principles.
An interest in Buddhism had been circling among academic circles in modern Europe since the 1870s, with philosophers like
Arthur Schopenhauerand Friedrich Nietzscheand esoteric-minded scholars such as Helena Blavatsky. Russia, and ironically, Austriaare the only two European states today that recognize Buddhism as an "official", though not necessarily "state religion" in their respective countries. On top of that, Russia also recognizes it, along with Islam, Judaism, and of course Orthodox Christianity, as native to Russian soil in the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation– all other religious groups are unrecognized, and must officially register and be subject to rejection by the state. Apart from Siberian Buddhist nations, the Kalmyk people's 17th century migration into Europe has made them today's only traditionally Buddhist nation west of the Ural. They now live in the Republic of Kalmykia, a Russian Republic.
Major Buddhist temples in Europe
Plum Village: In 1982 vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh and his colleague Sister Chân Không founded Plum Village Buddhist Center (Làng Mai), a monastery and Practice Center in the Dordogne in the south of France. Since the mid 60s he has headed a monastic and lay group, the Order of Inter-Being, teaching the Five and Fourteen Mindfulness Trainings and "Engaged Buddhism." The Unified Buddhist Church is the legally recognized governing body for Plum Village (Làng Mai) in France.
The Four Dhagpo in France: Since its simple beginnings at Dhagpo Kagyu Ling in 1976, the mandala of the Karma Kagyu lineage in Europe has expanded in accordance with specific instructions left behind by His Holiness the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa.
Placing Gendun Rinpoche in charge and appointing Jigme Rinpoche as his European representative, His Holiness Gyalwa Karmapa said it was necessary to build a center open to the public, a library, a university, a monastic hermitage and a retreat centre, if an authentic transmission and long term preservation of the Dharma were to take place.
Since then Dhagpo Kagyu Ling, Dhagpo Kundreul Ling, Dhagpo Dargye Ling, Dhagpo Dedreul Ling have the role of preserving and transmitting the Buddha's teachings. Together they form a unified whole in which each centre compliments the activity of the three others.
Samyé Lingmonastery in Scotland, which celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2007, includes the largest Buddhist temple in western Europe. There is an associated community on Holy Isle which is owned by Samyé Ling who belong to the Kagyuschool of Tibetan Buddhism. The settlements on the island include the "Centre for World Peace and Health" and a retreat centre for nuns. Samyé Ling has also established centres in more than 20 countries, including Belgium, Ireland, Poland, South Africa, Spain and Switzerland. [ [http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=3,4102,0,0,1,0 In the Scottish Lowlands, Europe's first Buddhist monastery turns 40] Retrieved 24 June 2007.]
The largest temple in eastern Europe is the Golden Temple in Kalmykia, which was opened in December 2005. [ [http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=3,2114,0,0,1,0 Europe's biggest Buddhist temple opens in Kalmykia] Retrieved 24 June 2007.]
Buddhism in the West
Buddhism by country
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