- William Empson
Sir William Empson (
27 September 1906– 15 April 1984) was an English literary criticand poet.
He is sometimes praised as the greatest English literary critic after
Samuel Johnsonand William Hazlitt, and widely influential for his practice of closely reading literary works, fundamental to the New Critics. Jonathan Batehas claimed that the three greatest English Literary critics of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries are, respectively, Johnson, Hazlitt and Empson, "not least because they are the funniest".
Empson has been styled a "critic of genius" by
Sir Frank Kermode, who qualified his praise by identifying willfully perverse readings of certain authors; and Harold Bloomhas stated that Empson is among a handful of critics who matter most to him, because of their force and eccentricity. Empson's bluntness led to controversy both during his life and after his death, and a reputation in part also as a "licensed buffoon" (Empson's own phrase).
Empson first discovered his great skill and interest in mathematics at his preparatory school. He won an entrance scholarship to
Winchester College, where he excelled as a student and received what he later described as "a ripping education" in spite of the rather rough and abusive milieu of the school: a long standing tradition of physical force, especially among the students, figured prominently in life at such schools.
In 1925, Empson won a scholarship to
Magdalene College, Cambridgeand achieved a double first in Mathematics and English in 1929. His supervisor in Mathematics, the father of the mathematician and philosopher Frank P. Ramsey, expressed regret at Empson's decision to pursue English rather than Mathematics, since it was a discipline for which Empson showed great talent. I.A. Richards, the director of studies in English, recalled the genesis of Empson's first major work, "Seven Types of Ambiguity", composed when Empson was not yet 22 and published when he was 24:
At about his third visit he brought up the games of interpretation which
Laura Ridingand Robert Graveshad been playing [in "A Survey of Modernist Poetry", 1927] with the unpunctuated form of 'The expense of spirit in a waste of shame.' Taking the sonnet as a conjuror takes his hat, he produced an endless swarm of lively rabbits from it and ended by 'You could do that with any poetry, couldn't you?' This was a Godsend to a Director of Studies, so I said, 'You'd better go off and do it, hadn't you?'
Despite Empson's great precocity and skill in both English and Mathematics, he was asked to leave Cambridge due to infractions against propriety - a servant discovered prophylactics in his room - a fitting symbol of Empson's cheerful disregard for prevailing moral norms.
After his banishment from Cambridge, Empson supported himself for a brief period as a freelance critic and journalist, living in
Bloomsburyuntil 1930 when he signed a three-year contract to teach in Japan after his tutor Richards had failed to find him a post teaching in China.
He returned to England in the mid-1930s only to depart again upon receiving a three-year contract to teach at
Peking University, where, upon his arrival, he discovered that due to the Japanese invasion of China, he no longer had available a post. Empson joined the exodus, with little more than a typewriter and suitcase, of professors at Peking University in continual evasion of the invading force, teaching whole courses on English poetry without texts or other aids, and would not arrive in England until January 1939.
In 1953 he was professor of rhetoric at Gresham College, London for a year. He later became head of the English department at the
University of Sheffielduntil his retirement in 1972.
Empson's critical work focuses largely on early and pre-modern works in the English literary canon. He was a significant scholar of Milton (see below), Shakespeare ("Essays on Shakespeare"), Elizabethan drama ("Essays on Renaissance Literature: Volume 2, The Drama") and published a monograph on the subject of censorship and the authoritative version of
Marlowe's " Doctor Faustus" ("Faustus and the Censor"); but also an important scholar of the metaphysical poets John Donne("Essays on Renaissance Literature: Volume 1, Donne and the New Philosophy") and Andrew Marvell. Rather more occasionally, Empson would bring his critical genius to bear on modern writers; "Using Biography", for instance, contains papers on Henry Fielding's "Tom Jones" as well as the poetry of Yeats and Eliot and Joyce's "Ulysses".
Literary Criticism I: Style, Method, & Influence
Empson is today best known for his literary criticism, and in particular his analysis of the use of language in poetical works: his own poetry is arguably undervalued, although it was admired by and influenced English poets in the 1950s. In his critical work he was particularly influenced by the philosopher
Ludwig Wittgenstein. Empson's best known work is the book "Seven Types of Ambiguity" which, together with "Some Versions of Pastoral" and "The Structure of Complex Words," mine the astonishing riches of linguistic ambiguity in English poetic literature. Empson's studies unearth layer upon layer of irony, suggestion, and argumentation in various literary works - a technique of textual criticism so influential that often Empson's contributions to certain domains of literary scholarship remain significant, though they may no longer be recognized as his. The universal recognition of the difficulty and complexity (indeed, ambiguity) of Shakespeare's "Sonnet 94" ("They that have power..."), for instance, is traceable to Empson's analysis in "Some Versions of Pastoral" - a virtuosic display of the riches a critic might unearth from a close reading of a poem. Empson's study of "Sonnet 94" goes some way towards explaining the high esteem in which the sonnet is now held (often being reckoned as among the finest sonnets), as well as the technique of criticism and interpretation that has thus reckoned it.
Empson's technique of teasing a rich variety of interpretations from poetic literature does not, however, exhaustively characterize his critical practice. He is much interested in the human or experiential reality to be discovered in great works of literature as is manifest, for instance, in his discussion of the fortunes of the notion of
Proletarianliterature in "Some Versions of Pastoral". Indeed, it is this commitment to unravelling or articulating the experiential truth or reality in literature that aligns Empson so perfectly with Dr. Johnson and that permits him unusual avenues to explore sociopolitical ideas in literature in a vein very different from contemporary Marxistcritics (e.g., Fredric Jameson) or scholars of New Historicism(e.g., Stephen Greenblatt). Thus, for instance, Empson remarks in the first few pages of "Some Versions of Pastoral" that:
Gray's " [http://www.thomasgray.org/cgi-bin/display.cgi?text=elcc Elegy] " is an odd case of poetry with latent political ideas:
:Full many a gem of purest ray serene:The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear;:Full many a flower is born to blush unseen:And waste its sweetness on the desert air.
What this means, as the context makes clear, is that eighteenth century England had no scholarship system or "carrière ouverte aux talents". This is stated as pathetic, but the reader is put into a mood in which one would not try to alter it. ... By comparing the social arrangement to Nature he makes it seem inevitable, which it was not, and gives it a dignity which was undeserved. ... The tone of melancholy claims that the poet understands the considerations opposed to aristocracy, though he judges against them; the truism of the reflections in the churchyard, the universality and impersonality this gives to the style, claim as if by comparison that we ought to accept the injustice of society as we do the inevitability of death.
Empson goes on to deliver his political verdict with a psychological suggestion:
Many people, without being communists, have been irritated by the complacence in the massive calm of the poem, and this seems partly because they feel there is a cheat in the implied politics; the 'bourgeois' themselves do not like literature to have too much 'bourgeois ideology.'
Should one be in doubt of Empson's estimation and understanding of Gray's achievement, in the face of a tradition of canonization and study of the poem, Empson routs all political quibbles and ideological concerns with some remarks reminiscent of
Dr. Johnsonin their pained insistence:
And yet what is said is one of the permanent truths; it is only in degree that any improvement of society could prevent wastage of human powers; the waste even in a fortunate life, the isolation even of a life rich in intimacy, cannot but be felt deeply, and is the central feeling of tragedy. And anything of value must accept this because it must not prostitute itself; its strength is to be prepared to waste itself, if it does not get its opportunity. A statement of this is certainly non-political because it is true in any society, and yet nearly all the great poetic statements of it are in a way 'bourgeois', like this one; they suggest to readers, though they do not say, that for the poor man things cannot be improved even in degree.
Despite the complexity of Empson's critical methods and attitude, his work, in particular, "Seven Types of Ambiguity", had a significant impact on the
New Criticism, a school of criticism which directed particular attention to close readingof texts, among whose adherents may be numbered F.R. Leavis, although, as has been noted, Empson could scarcely be described as an adherent or exponent of such a school or, indeed, of any critical "school" at all. Indeed, Empson consistently ridiculed, both outrightly in words and implicitly in practice, the doctrine of the Intentional Fallacyformulated by William K. Wimsatt, an influential New Critic. Indeed, Empson's distaste for New Criticism could manifest itself in a distinctively dismissive and brusque wit as when he describes New Criticism(which he ironically labels "the new rigour") as a "campaign to make poetry as dull as possible" ("Essays on Renaissance Literature: Volume 1, Donne and the New Philosophy", pg. 122). Similarly, both the title and the content of one of Empson's volumes of critical papers, "Using Biography", show a patent and polemical disregard for the teachings of New Critics as much as for those of Roland Barthesand postmodernliterary theories predicated upon, if not merely influenced by, the notion of the Death of the Author, despite the fact that some scholars regard Empson as a progenitor of certain of these currents of criticism, which vexed Empson enough to comment:
Now and again somebody like Christopher Norris may, in a pious moment, attempt to "recuperate" a particularly brilliant old-style reputation by claiming its owner as a New New Critic "avant la lettre" - Empson in this case, now to be thought of as having, in his "great theoretical summa," "The Structure of Complex Words", anticipated
deconstruction. The grumpy old man repudiated this notion with his habitual scorn, calling the work of Derrida (or, as he preferred to call him, "Nerrida") "very disgusting"... (Kermode, "Pleasure, Change, and the Canon")
Literary Criticism II: "Milton's God"
Empson's "Milton's God" is often described as a sustained attack on
Christianityand defence of Milton's attempt to 'justify God's ways to man' in " Paradise Lost". Empson argues that precisely the inconsistencies and complexities adduced by critics as evidence of the poem's badness, in fact, function in quite the opposite manner: what the poem brings out is the difficulty faced by "anyone" in encountering and submitting to the will of God and, indeed, the great clash between the authority of such a deity and the determinate desires and needs of human beings.
...the poem is not good in spite of but especially because of its moral confusions, which ought to be clear in your mind when you are feeling its power. I think it horrible and wonderful; I regard it as like
Aztecor Beninsculpture, or to come nearer home the novels of Kafka, and am rather suspicious of any critic who claims not to feel anything so obvious.("Milton's God" (1965), p13)
Empson claims that it is precisely Milton's great sensitivity and faithfulness to the Scriptures, in spite of their apparent madness, that generates such a controversial picture of God: thus Empson reckons that it requires a mind of astonishing integrity to, in the words of Blake, be of the Devil's party without knowing it.
[Milton] is struggling to make his God appear less wicked, as he tells us he will at the start (l. 25), and does succeed in making him noticeably less wicked than the traditional Christian one; though, after all, owing to his loyalty to the sacred text and the penetration with which he make its story real to us, his modern critics still feel, in a puzzled way, that there is something badly wrong about it all. That this searching goes on in "Paradise Lost", I submit, is the chief source of its fascination and poignancy...("Milton's God" (1965), pg. 11)
The tendency in surveys of Empson's achievement in "Milton's God" is, depending on one's politics, to marvel or bristle at the audacious perversity of his central thesis - though something of the same perversity was tidied up and reinterpreted in Stanley Fish's much lauded work on Milton (see, e.g., "Surprised by Sin"); this eclipses some of Empson's insights and his intelligence, humanity and humour in reading the poem, and ignores the significance of the work as one of the few efforts to immunize the aesthetic achievements of the poem from its theological or more widely religious achievements (see also the work of
Although perhaps not as influential in academic circles as, for example, Fish's work, "Milton's God" remains of great significance to any critically-minded reader of "Paradise Lost" as a presentation of some reasons for the centrality of the work in the English literary canon. Empson portrays the work as the product of a poet of astonishingly powerful and imaginative sensibilities and great intellect who had invested much of himself in the poem. Despite its lack of influence, certain critics view "Milton's God" as by far the best (that is to say, the most "valuable") sustained work of criticism on the poem by a 20th century critic.
Harold Bloomincludes it as one of the few critical works worthy of canonical status in his "The Western Canon" (and the only critical work focusing solely on a single piece of literature).
Empson's poetry is clever, learned, dry, aethereal and technically virtuosic - not wholly dissimilar to his critical work. His high regard for the metaphysical poet
John Donneis to be seen in many places within his work, tempered with his appreciation of Buddhistthinking, an occasional tendency to satire, and a larger awareness of intellectual trends. He wrote very few poems and stopped publishing poetry almost entirely after 1940. His "Complete Poems" [edited by John Haffenden, his biographer] is 512 pages long, with over 300 pages of notes. In reviewing this work, Frank Kermodecommended him as a "most noteworthy poet", and chose it as "International Book of the Year" at the TLS.
Person & Character
Empson was a charismatic personality, variously described as gruff, scornful, brusque, cold, and of immoderate appetites (sex and alcohol being the most obvious), partly because he was also a roundly paradoxical figure. His sophisticated and subtle intellectual refinement contrasted sharply with his rather lax attention to personal hygiene (the filthiness of his lodgings throughout his life is legendary) and grooming (in later years he affected a bizarre style of facial hair, shaving his chin, but allowing the hair around his neck to grow unimpeded, so that it resembled a shaggy, white cravat). He was deeply sympathetic to the cause of Maoist revolutionaries in China, but was brought up in the cavernous luxury of a rural estate in
Yorkshirewith all the attendant prerogatives of a member of the landed gentry. He was a scholar of imagination, erudition and insight specializing in the highly traditional domain of early and pre-modern English literatureat the heart of the canon (Shakespeare, Milton, the Metaphysical Poets), but his work is marked by great humour, the indulgence of an eloquent and cavalier dismissiveness (reminiscent of Oscar Wilde's critical "bon mots"), and an astonishingly rich and varied erudition. He was esteemed the revolutionary forefather of modern literary criticism, but disavowed "theory" altogether and evinced a deep concern for distinctly "psychological" elements in literature: the emotions of desire and love, the sensibility and intentions of authors. He was an intellectual and scholar, yet, he spent a good portion of his early years living the life of an imperial adventurer (more a Richard Francis Burtonthan a C. S. Lewis). These paradoxes of character and approach partly help to explain the sense that many scholars have that, while imaginative, insightful and well-argued, his critical judgement sometimes partakes of the bizarre and, indeed, the downright perverse. Nevertheless, the importance of his early critical works to the history of literary criticism is widely acknowledged and "Milton's God" remains of considerable importance to Miltonic studies. Empson's critical legacy, despite occasional gaffes and less occasional idiosyncrasies, remains secure.
From "Proletarian Literature" in "Some Versions of Pastoral":
As for propaganda, some very good work has been that; most authors want their point of view to be convincing. Pope said that even the "Aeneid" was a 'political puff'; its dreamy, impersonal, universal melancholy was a calculated support for
Of course to decide on an author's purpose, conscious or unconscious, is very difficult. Good writing is not done unless there are serious forces at work; and it is not permanent unless it works for readers with opinions different from the author's. On the other hand, the reason an English audience can enjoy Russian propagandist films is that the propaganda is too remote to be annoying; a Tory audience subjected to Tory propaganda of the same intensity would be extremely bored.
From "They That Have Power" in "Some Versions of Pastoral":
Sonnet 94): If this was Shakespeare's only surviving work, it would still be clear, supposing one knew about the other Elizabethans, that it involves somehow their feelings about the Machiavellian, the wicked plotter who is exciting and civilized and somehow right about life; which seems an important though rather secret element in the romance that Shakespeare extracted from his patron.
...poets, who tend to make in their lives a situation they have already written about.
...that curious trick of
pastoralwhich for extreme courtly flattery - perhaps to give self-respect to both poet and patron, to show that the poet is not ignorantly easy to impress, nor the patron to flatter - writes about the poorest people; and those jazz songs which give an intense effect of luxury and silk underwear by pretending to be about slaves naked in the fields.
The feeling that life is essentially inadequate to the human spirit, and yet that a good life must avoid saying so, is naturally at home with most versions of pastoral; in pastoral you take a limited life and pretend it is the full and normal one, and a suggestion that one must do this with all life, because the normal is itself limited, is easily put into the trick though not necessary to its power. Conversely any expression of the idea that all life is limited may be regarded as only a trick of pastoral, perhaps chiefly intended to hold all our attention and sympathy for some limited life, though again this is not necessary to it either on grounds of truth or beauty; in fact the suggestion of pastoral may be only a protection for the idea which must at last be taken alone (c.f. Aeron Kopriva's emails, 2006-2007). The business of interpretation is obviously very complicated. Literary uses of the problem of free-will and necessity, for example, may be noticed to give curiously bad arguments and I should think get their strength from keeping you in doubt between the two methods. Thus Hardy is fond of showing us an unusually stupid person subjected to very unusually bad luck, and then a moral is drawn, not merely by inference but by solemn assertion, that we are all in the same boat as this person who story is striking precisely because it is unusual. The effect may be very grand, but to make an otherwise logical reader accept the process must depend on giving him obscure reasons for wishing it so. It is clear at any rate that this grand notion of the inadequacy of life, so various in its means of expression, so reliable a bass note in the arts, needs to be counted as a possible territory of the pastoral.
Surely Bentley was right to be surprised at finding Faunus haunting the bower ["Paradise Lost" ll. 705 - 707] , a ghost crying in the cold of
Paradise, and the lusts of Pan sacred even in comparison to Eden. There is a Vergilian quality in the lines, haunting indeed, a pathos not mentioned because it is the whole of the story. I suppose that in Satan determining to destroy the innocent happiness of Eden, for the highest political motives, without hatred, not without tears, we may find some echo of the Elizabethanfulness of life that Milton as a poet abandoned, and as a Puritan helped to destroy.
On Celine's "
Journey to the End of the Night" from "Some Versions of Pastoral":
"Voyage au Bout de la Nuit"...is not to be placed quickly either as pastoral or proletarian; it is partly the 'underdog' theme and partly social criticism. The two main characters have no voice or trust in their society and no sympathy with those who have; it is this, not cowardice or poverty or low class, which the war drives home to them, and from then on they have a straightforward inferiority complex; the theme becomes their struggle with it as private individuals. ... Life may be black and mad in the second half but Bardamu is not, and he gets to the real end of the night as critic and spectator. This change is masked by unity of style and by a humility which will not allow that one can claim to be sane while living as part of such a world, but it is in the second half that we get Bardamu speaking as Celine in criticism of it. What is attacked may perhaps be summed up as the death-wishes generated by the herds of a machine society, and he is not speaking as 'spokesman of the proletariat' or with any sympathy for a communist one. ...before claiming the book as proletarian literature "you have to separate off the author (in the phrase that
Radekused) as a man ripe for fascism". ("Note this was written 2 years before Celine's first anti-semitic pamphlet and 9 years before he fled to Germany".)
From "The Variants for the Byzantium Poems" in "Using Biography":
...she appears to end her penultimate chapter 'Was
Yeatsa Christian?' with the sentiment that he must have been pretty Christian if he could stay friends with Ezra Pound.
When I was young, literary critics often rejoiced that the hypocrisy of the
Victorianshad been discredited, or expressed confidence that the operation would soon be complete. So far from that, it has returned in a peculiarly stifling form to take possession of critics of Eng. Lit.; Mr. Pecksniff has become the patron saint of many of my colleagues. As so often, the deformity is the result of severe pressure between forces in themselves good. The study of English authors of the past is now centred in the universities, and yet there must be no censorship - no work of admitted literary merit may be hidden from the learners. Somehow we must save poor Teacher's face, and protect him from the indignant or jeering students, local authorities or parents. It thus came to be tactily agreed that a dead author usually hated what he described, hated it as much as we do, even, and wanted his book to shame everybody out of being so nasty ever again. The is often called fearless or unflinching criticism, and one of its ill effects is to make the young people regard all literature as a terrific nag or scold. Independently of this, a strong drive has been going on to recover the children for orthodox or traditional religious beliefs; ... and when you understand all that, you may just be able to understand how they manage to present James Joyceas a man devoted to the God who was satisfied by the crucifixion. The concordat was reached over his dead body.
*"Seven Types of Ambiguity" (1930)
*"Some Versions of Pastoral" (1935)
*"The Structure of Complex Words" (1951)
*"Milton's God" (1961)
*"Using Biography" (1985)
*"Essays on Shakespeare" (1986)
*"Faustus and the Censor" (1987)
*" on Literature and Culture" (1987)
The Strengths of Shakespeare's Shrew: Essays, Memoirs and Interviews" (1996).
The Complete Poems of William Empson" - ed. Haffenden
The Royal Beasts and Other Works" - London: Chatto & Windus, 1986.
*"" (ed. by David Pirie), 1972 - Introduction
Selected Books on Empson
*Haffenden, John. "William Empson: Vol.1: Among the Mandarins"
*Haffenden, John. "William Empson: Vol.2: Against the Christians"
*Norris, Christopher and Mapp, Nigel (eds.). "William Empson: The Critical Achievement. Cambridge: CUP, 1993"
Frank Day. "Sir William Empson: An Annotated Bibliography. London: Garland, 1984"
*Gardner, Philip and Averil. "The God approached : a commentary on the poems of William Empson. London: Chatto & Windus, 1978"
* list of Gresham Professors of Rhetoric
* [http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/the_tls/article2730351.ece "William Empson's fixated faith"] : an article in the [http://www.the-tls.co.uk TLS] by Eric Griffiths, October 24, 2007
* [http://www.archive.org/details/seventypesofambi030525mbp "Seven Types of Ambiguity"] The Open Archive copy of the second edition, London, 1949.
* [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v27/n10/kerm01_.html "The Savage Life": Sir Frank Kermode reviews vol. 1 of John Haffenden's biography of William Empson]
* [http://www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/volume24/kermode_2001.pdf "Pleasure, Change, and the Canon": Sir Frank Kermode's Tanner Lectures on Human Values]
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