Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test


Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test

The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test or VDRL was developed by the former Venereal Disease Research Laboratory, now the Treponemal Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch, of the United States Public Health Service. The VDRL type test was invented before World War I, with its first iteration being that developed by August Paul von Wasserman with the aid of Albert Neisser in 1906. The VDRL test, as it is largely still done today, was developed in 1946 by Harris, Rosenberg, and Riedel [ Harris A, Rosenberg AA, Riedel LM. A microflocculation test for syphilis using cardiolopin antigen: preliminary report. J Vener Dis Inform 1946; 27: 159–172.] .

The RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin) test uses the same antigen as the VDRL, but in that test it has been bound to several other molecules including a carbon particle to allow visualization of the flocculation reaction without the need of a microscope.

The (VDRL) is a nontreponemal serological screening for syphilis that is also used to assess response to therapy, to detect of CNS involvement, and as an aid in the diagnosis of congenital syphilis. The basis of the test is that an antibody produced by a patient with syphilis reacts with an extract of ox heart (diphosphatidyl glycerol). It therefore detects anti-cardiolipin antibodies (IgG, IgM or IgA).Many other medical conditions can produce false positive results, including some viruses (mononucleosis, hepatitis), drugs, pregnancy, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and leprosy.

The syphilis anti-cardiolipin antibodies are beta-2 glycoprotein independent,cite journal | author = Hunt JE, McNeil HP, Morgan GJ, Crameri RM, Krilis SA | title = A phospholipid-beta 2-glycoprotein I complex is an antigen for anticardiolipin antibodies occurring in autoimmune disease but not with infection | journal = Lupus | volume = 1 | issue = 2 | pages = 75–81 | year = 1992 | pmid = 1301967| doi = 10.1177/096120339200100204] where as those that occur in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (associated to lupus for example) are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent, and this can be used to tell them apart in an ELISA assay.cite journal | author = Kumar KS, Jyothy A, Prakash MS, Rani HS, Reddy PP | title = Beta2-glycoprotein I dependent anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss | journal = Journal of postgraduate medicine | volume = 48 | issue = 1 | pages = 5–10 | year = 2002 | pmid = 12082318 | doi = ] This test is very useful as the trend of titres are correlated to disease activity (i.e. falling titres indicate successful treatment). It has a very good sensitivity for syphilis, except in late tertiary form.

There are a number of treponemal-specific tests such as the Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assays (TPHA and MHA-TP), Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA), and the Toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) which may be used to confirm a positive VDRL result. These tests are more specific for syphilis than non-treponemal tests and, in the presence of a positive test, more likely indicate active infection. Unfortunately other treponemal infections such as yaws, bejel and pinta and possibly nonpathogenic commensal treponemes can result in a positive.

However it must be noted that all treponemal specific tests will remain positive for life once a person has been infected with syphilis, even if syphilis has been adequately treated. Therefore, these types of tests cannot be used to monitor the treatment of syphilis.

References


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  • Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test — A blood test for syphilis. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory is commonly abbreviated VDRL. A negative ( nonreactive ) VDRL is compatible with a person not having syphilis. However, a person may a negative VDRL and still have syphilis since, in …   Medical dictionary

  • Test, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory — A blood test for syphilis. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory is commonly abbreviated VDRL. A negative ( nonreactive ) VDRL is compatible with a person not having syphilis. However, a person may a negative VDRL and still have syphilis since, in …   Medical dictionary

  • Venereal Disease Research Laboratory — VDRL Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (ou VDRL) est un test biologique utile au diagnostic de la syphilis. Ce test détecte des anticorps dirigés contre des antigènes non tréponèmiques ce qui en fait donc un test non spécifique, contrairement… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Test, rapid plasma reagin — A screening blood test for syphilis. Rapid plasma reagin is commonly abbreviated RPR. A negative ( nonreactive ) RPR test result is compatible with a person not having syphilis. However, a person may have a negative RPR test and still have… …   Medical dictionary

  • test — 1. To prove; to try a substance; to determine the chemical nature of a substance by means of reagents. 2. A method of examination, as to determine the presence or absence of a definite disease or of some substance in any of the fluids, tissues,… …   Medical dictionary

  • Test, syphilis (VDRL) — A blood test for syphilis (VDRL stands for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) that detects an antibody that is present in the bloodstream when a patient has syphilis. A negative (nonreactive) VDRL is compatible with a person not having… …   Medical dictionary

  • Test, VDRL — A blood test for syphilis (VDRL stands for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) that detects an antibody that is present in the bloodstream when a patient has syphilis. A negative (nonreactive) VDRL is compatible with a person not having… …   Medical dictionary

  • Rapid plasma reagin test — A screening blood test for syphilis. Rapid plasma reagin is commonly abbreviated RPR. A negative ( nonreactive ) RPR test result is compatible with a person not having syphilis. However, a person may have a negative RPR test and still have… …   Medical dictionary

  • VDRL test — A blood test for syphilis (VDRL stands for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) that detects an antibody that is present in the bloodstream when a patient has syphilis. A negative (nonreactive) VDRL is compatible with a person not having… …   Medical dictionary

  • Syphilis test, VDRL — A blood test for syphilis (VDRL stands for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) that detects an antibody that is present in the bloodstream when a patient has syphilis. A negative (nonreactive) VDRL is compatible with a person not having… …   Medical dictionary


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