White supremacy


White supremacy

White supremacy is a racist [cite book |title=Black Intellectuals, Black Cognition, and a Black Aesthetic |last=Wright |first=William D. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1997 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |location= |isbn=0275955427 |pages=9 |quote=White supremacy is a racist doctrine pertaining to white people, and white people only, that refers to their alleged innate superiority.] ideology based on the assertion that white people are superior to other racial groups. The term is sometimes used specifically to describe a political ideology that advocates the social and political dominance of whites. [cite book |title=Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Preference |last=Wildman |first=Stephanie M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1996 |publisher=NYU Press |location= |isbn=0814793037 P. 87]

White supremacy, as with racial supremacism in general, is rooted in ethnocentrism and a desire for hegemony. It is associated with varying degrees of racism as well as a desire for racial separation. White supremacy has often resulted in anti-black racism and antisemitism, although it has also involved prejudice and discrimination against a wide variety of "non-white" groups.

Different forms of white supremacy have different definitions of 'white', and not all white supremacist organizations agree on which group is the greatest enemy. [cite book |title=Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. |last=Flint |first=Colin |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2004 |publisher=Routledge |location= |isbn=0415935865 |pages=53 |quote=Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern cultrue poses special challenges for them. In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white os to be distinct from those marked as nonwhite, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places. ] White supremacists frequently consider Jews to be the gravest threat to their cause, because they can assimilate much more easily than other ethnic groups. [cite book |title=Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies |last=Gerstenfeld |first=Phyllis B. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2003 |publisher=Sage Publications Inc. |location= |isbn=0761928146 |pages=155 |quote=The third reason that Jews may be so vilified is that, compared with people of color, they can much more easily assimilate; they can easily "pass." This represents a particular threat to white supremacy because Jews can infiltrate the white power structure in a way that people of color cannot. ]

History

Politically, socially and economically, white supremacy was dominant in the United States before the American Civil War and for decades after Reconstruction. The same is true of Apartheid-era South Africa and of parts of Europe at various time periods; most notably under Nazi Germany's Third Reich. The extent and nature of white supremacy's continuing influence in western culture is a subject of ongoing debate. In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white were disenfranchised, barred from government office, and prevented from holding most government jobs — well into the second half of the twentieth century. White leaders often viewed Native Americans (known as First Nations in Canada) and Australian Aborigines as obstacles to economic and political progress, rather than as settlers in their own right. Many European-settled countries bordering the Pacific Ocean limited immigration and naturalization from the Asian Pacific countries, usually on a cultural basis. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage through so-called "anti-miscegenation laws" until 1967, when these laws were declared unconstitutional. South Africa maintained its white supremacist-like Apartheid system until the early 1990s.

The white supremacist ideology has become associated with a racist faction of the skinhead subculture, despite the fact that when the skinhead scene first developed in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, it was heavily influenced by Jamaican rude boys and British mods. [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20010219175613/ska.about.com/musicperform/ska/library/1999/aa081699a.htm Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness] ] [ [http://www.reggaereggaereggae.com/Special%20Articles.htm Special Articles ] ] cite book |last=Old Skool Jim |first= |title=Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes |publisher=Trojan Records |date= |location=London |id=TJETD169] By the 1980s, a sizable and vocal white power skinhead faction had formed; partly influenced by Ian Stuart Donaldson and his Rock Against Communism band, Skrewdriver.Fact|date=December 2007 The band's 1983 EP "White Power" was the first white power rock music recording printed by the White Noise record label.Fact|date=December 2007

White supremacist movements and ideologies

White supremacist groups can be found in most countries and regions with a significant white population, including North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Latin America. In all of these locations, their views represent a relatively small minority of the population, and active membership of the groups is quite small. However, a backlash to the influx of non-white immigrants into various European nations has spurred a rise in membership in such organizations, as well as an escalation in militant white supremacist demonstrations and hate crimes. The militant approach taken by white supremacist groups has caused them to be watched closely by law enforcement officials. Some European countries have laws forbidding hate speech, as well as other laws that ban or restrict white supremacist organizations but not all.

Pan Aryanism

Another variant, "Pan Aryanism", accepts native Europeans from all of continental Europe and extends its acceptance to non-European Caucasoids, such as some Middle Easterners, North Africans, and Central/West/South Asians. Yet this is usually on an individual basis and not all people from these regions are accepted by Pan-Aryanists as white. The acceptance of Middle Easterners in Pan-Aryanist ideology, Syrians, Lebanese, Turks (who are sometimes considered European), and Persians are accepted as white, but Saudis and Yemenites "as a whole" are not.

South Asian Caucasoids (Pakistanis, Northern Indians etc) "as a whole" may generally not be accepted in this ideology as well, however some Pan-Aryanists acknowledge and have disputing beliefs on lighter skinned people descended from Indo-Europeans in this region. An example is a textbook for those taking entrance examinations for the British Civil Service in the early 1900s categorically stated that Afghans and Berbers were in the highest classification, along with Northern Europeans, but above the Spanish and Italians. "Geography of the World". Civil Service Book Depot, 1904.] .

Nordicism

Those who follow the ideology of "Nordicism" and "Germanism" consider Northern European people who are Nordic (Scandinavians, Germans, and Dutch) to be superior, shunning those of Southern and Eastern Europe (who may have darker features and different cultures) along with anyone whose ethnic heritage is not European. In Madison Grant's 1916 book, "The Passing of the Great Race", Europeans who were not of Germanic origin and had Nordic characteristics such as blonde hair and light eyes were considered to be a Nordic admixture and suitable for Aryanization. Grant, Madison. "The Passing of the Great Race". Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1916.]

Religious movements

The Christian Identity movement, which is regarded by other branches of Christianity as heretical, is closely tied to white supremacy. The Ku Klux Klan's reasons for supporting racial segregation are not primarily based on religious ideals, although some Klan groups are openly Christian Protestant because of their northern European/Germanic roots.Some white supremacists identify themselves as Odinists, although most Odinists reject white supremacy, and white supremacists make up only a small fraction of those who support Odinism (belief in the gods of Norse mythology). The white supremacist version of Odinism claims that the universe is composed of "worlds of light" (white people) and "worlds of dark" (non-white people).Fact|date=January 2007 Some white supremacist groups, such as the South African Boeremag, conflate elements of Christianity and Odinism.

The World Church of the Creator, now called the Creativity Movement, believed that a person's race is his religion. Aside from this central belief, its ideology is similar to many Christian Identity groups, in the conviction that there is a Jewish conspiracy in control of the United States government, international banking, and the media. They claim that a Racial Holy War ("RAHOWA"), is destined to happen, which would eliminate Jews and "mud races" from the planet. In the early 1990s, there was a dramatic increase in membership, due to the growing belief in the apocalypse. A different (non-racist) group called Church of the Creator legally trademarked the name and won a lawsuit in 1996, leading to the white supremacist group to change its name to the Creativity Movement. [ [http://www.churchofthecreator.org/TM/TMindex.html Trademark Litigation - Church Of The Creator® ] ]

White Power

White Power is a white nationalist political slogan and a name for the associated ideology. It was coined by American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell. He used the term in a debate with Stokely Carmichael of the Black Panther Party, after Carmichael issued a call for "Black Power". "White Power" became the name of the American Nazi Party's newspaper, and the title of a book by Rockwell. Many white nationalists, including "white supremacists" and certain neo-Nazis, have since used the phrase "White Power" to describe their political goal.

"White Power" as an ideology has become closely associated with a racist faction of the skinhead subculture. When the skinhead scene first developed in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, it was heavily influenced by Jamaican rude boys and British mods. [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20010219175613/ska.about.com/musicperform/ska/library/1999/aa081699a.htm Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness] ] [http://www.reggaereggaereggae.com/Special%20Articles.htm] cite book |last=Old Skool Jim |first= |title=Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes |publisher=Trojan Records |date= |location=London |id=TJETD169] However, by the 1980s, a sizable and vocal white power skinhead faction had formed; partly influenced by Ian Stuart Donaldson and his Rock Against Communism band, Skrewdriver. The band's 1983 EP "White Power" was the first white power rock music recording printed by the White Noise record label.

Footnotes

Further reading

* Dobratz, Betty A. and Shanks-Meile, Stephanie. "White power, white pride!": The white separatist movement in the United States" (Twayne Publishers, NY, 1997).
* Lincoln Rockwell, George. "White Power" (John McLaughlin, 1996).

ee also

*KKK
* Neo-Nazism
* Apartheid
* Confederacy
* Dixiecrat
* Eugenics
* Germanic mysticism
* Institutional racism
* Jim Crow law
* Lynchings
* Master race
* Nadir of American race relations
* Neo-Nazi groups of the United States
* Nordic theory
* Pigmentocracy
* Race and intelligence
* Racial segregation
* Sons of Silence
* White Australia policy
* Zionist Occupation Government

External links

* [http://reactor-core.org/white-power.html "White Power" by George Lincoln Rockwell]
* [http://www.adl.org/hate_symbols/music.asp Anti-Defamation League article on white power music]


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  • white supremacy — white supremacist. the belief, theory, or doctrine that the white race is superior to all other races, esp. the black race, and should therefore retain control in all relationships. [1865 70, Amer.] * * *       beliefs and ideas asserting the… …   Universalium

  • white supremacy — ☆ white supremacy n. the social, economic, and political repression and exploitation of nonwhite peoples, esp. blacks, by white people, based on notions of racial superiority white supremacist n …   English World dictionary

  • White Supremacy — Als White Supremacy ([waɪt su premɘsɪ], engl. für „weiße Vorherrschaft“, „Überlegenheit der Weißen“) werden im englischsprachigen Raum diejenigen rassistischen Ideologien bezeichnet, die auf der Annahme beruhen, dass Weiße anderen menschlichen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • white supremacy — noun the prejudice that members of the white race are superior to members of other races • Derivationally related forms: ↑white supremacist • Hypernyms: ↑racism * * * white supremacy noun [noncount] • • • Main Entry: ↑white supremacist …   Useful english dictionary

  • white supremacy — white su premacy noun uncount the belief that white people are better than people of other races ╾ ,white su premacist noun count …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • white supremacy — white′ suprem′acy n. soc a belief that the white race is superior to other races, esp. the black race • Etymology: 1865–70, amer. white′ suprem′acist, n …   From formal English to slang

  • white supremacy — UK / US noun [uncountable] the belief that white people are better than people of other races Derived word: white supremacist noun countable Word forms white supremacist : singular white supremacist plural white supremacists …   English dictionary

  • white supremacy — noun (U) the belief that white people are better than other races and that other races should be kept at a lower social level white supremacist noun (C) …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

  • white supremacy — noun Date: 1864 a doctrine based on a belief in the inherent superiority of the white race over other races and the correlative necessity for the subordination of nonwhites to whites in all relationships …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • white supremacy — noun The ideology which holds that the white race is superior to all others …   Wiktionary


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