- 2006 state of emergency in the Philippines
Philippineswas under a state of emergency, announced by presidential spokesperson Ignacio Bunyeon the morning of February 24, 2006, by the virtue of Proclamation No. 1017. This occurred after the government claimed that it foiled an alleged coup d'étatattempt against the administration of Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyoearlier that same day. The Philippine government security service also claimed that it had arrested a general who was involved in the coup attempt. The president lifted the state of emergency on March 3, 2006by the virtue of Proclamation No. 1021.
The state of national emergency also led to a temporary suspension of lower-level education classes and an immediate revocation on all
licensesand permits to hold demonstrations and protests. The Arroyo administration, informally known as "Malacañang", after the presidential palace, also suspended all public activities on the same day and even on succeeding days. Under the provisions in the constitution of the Philippines, at the moment, the government is allowed to detain anyone indefinitely without the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.
President Arroyo assures that the situation was under control [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/archives2006/feb24.htm PGMA says situation is well under control] Office of the Press Secretary.
February 24, 2006] and the state of emergency would not be abused [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/archives2006/feb25.htm Proclamation 1017 will never be abused - Palace] Office of the Press Secretary. February 25, 2006] .
Arroyo had justified her declaration of a state of emergency with her statement of "clear and present danger to our republic that we have discovered and thwarted." Critics claim that this is an attempt by Arroyo to seize
political powerdue to her sagging influence and popularity, and some draw similarities to the actions of deposed Philippine president Ferdinand Marcoswhen he declared martial lawin 1972.
March 3, 2006(one week after the proclamation), by the virtue of Proclamation No. 1021, the President called off the state of emergency.
The coup attempt follows the
2003 Oakwood mutinywhere President Arroyo, certain members of her cabinet, and the military were charged with corruption and the Hello Garci scandal, where in 2004, Arroyo and certain election officials were charged with electoral fraudin the 2004 presidential elections.
This also comes after
Executive Order No. 464, where the President forbade government officials under the Executive branch to attend Filipino Congressional hearings, and the Calibrated Pre-Emptive Response, where street protests were disallowed without securing a rally permit.
This has led to a drop at the president's
popularity ratings from +28% right after EDSA IIto -30% by December 2005. [ [http://www.sws.org.ph/ind-pres.htm Satisfaction with the President] Social Weather Stations. February 25, 2006]
Timeline of events leading up to the proclamation
Infobox Military Conflict
February 22, 2006– February 24, 2006
Did not materialized since leaders where arrested.
place=Various places in the
result=Arrest of leaders; Declaration of
state of emergency.
commander1= Various Communist Leaders
commander2=flagicon|Philippines Philippine President
flagicon|Philippines Defense Secretary Avelino CruzThe coup was first reported when 14 junior military officers were arrested for plotting a coup on Wednesday,
February 22. By around midnight of the 24th, many military vehicles were seen entering Fort Bonifacioat Taguig City. Then, at 2:00 a.m., several more vehicles were seen entering Camp Aguinaldoat the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. Brigadier GeneralDanilo D. Lim of the Scout Rangers was put under the custody of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. [ [http://www.philstar.com/philstar/NEWS_FLASH022420065916_28.htm Gov't arrests senior military officer for anti-Arroyo activities] Philippine Star. February 24, 2006]
Joseph Estradawas awoken by the police around 3:00 a.m. in San Juan Medical Center because he was ordered return to his resthouse in Tanay, Rizal. He did not follow the request of the police, because it has no authority from the Sandiganbayan (the court which is trying his case). He said that "Magkakamatayan kami" (over my dead body). His eye operation succeeded despite the political unrest within Metro Manila.
Hours later, large demonstrations were held at EDSA Shrine, the site of the first
People Powermovement in 1986. The Presidential Malacañang Palacehas been heavily guarded since a lacquer thinner bombexploded outside of the building on Thursday, February 23[ [http://www.tribune.net.ph/headlines/20060224hed3.html Gloria tells Cory she’s part of Edsa I] The Daily Tribune. February 24, 2006] . The coup is part of a plot codenamed " Oplan HACKLE."
Arroyo claimed that the coup was a plan between right-wing factions in the military and leftist anarchists, a highly questionable claim since it has been pointed out that both sides have fought each other in the past, and would make unlikely allies. [ [http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/world/3684468.html Filipinos take to streets in protest of president's state of emergency]
Chron.com February 24, 2006]
By mid-morning, President Arroyo had declared a
moratoriumon all school activities from elementary to collegelevel, issued through the Department of Education and the Commission on Higher Education. Around 11:25 a.m., Arroyo issued Proclamation No. 1017on national television, which places the entire nation under a state of emergencyin an attempt to quell the rebellion — many fear this step might eventually lead to the introduction of martial law. General Order No. 5was issued by the President to implement Proclamation No. 1017. It orders the Armed Forces of the Philippinesto "maintain the peace and order of the country and to protect it from terrorism or chaos." [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/balitang_malacanang.htm Tinawagan ni PGMA ang AFP na pairalin ang mga batas at sugpuin ang mga kaguluhan at ligalig] Balitang Malacañang. February 25, 2006]
Events after the proclamation
The EDSA Shrine protesters were dispersed by the police by noontime. Some made their way to
La Salle Green Hills, while others went to the annual wreath-laying ceremony at Ninoy Aquino's monument on Ayala Avenue at Makati City, the metro's central business district.
On the other side of
EDSA, protesters led by University of the PhilippinesProfessor Randy Davidwere violently dispersed by the security forces at the EDSA-Kamuning intersection. Prof. David and Atty. Argee Guevarra were arrested and was charged with inciting to seditionin Camp Karingal in Quezon City. He was later released by nighttime, with all of the charges dropped. Ronald Llamas, a leader of the center-left of the Akbayan party, was arrested as well. [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=30846 Police arrest UP prof, Akbayan leader] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 24, 2006]
Around 3:30 p.m. demonstrators from different sectors gathered around at the Ninoy Aquino Monument in
Makati Cityto celebrate the 20th anniversary of the 1986 People Power Revolution. Prominent personalities like former President Corazon Aquinoand her daughter Kris Aquino, Senate President Franklin Drilon, former Vice President Teofisto Guingona, Bishop Teodoro Bacani and Bishop Oscar Cruz, as well as other senators like Sen. Aquilino Pimenteltook part in this event. Protesters believed that Makati would be a safe gathering place because it is governed by Mayor Jejomar Binay who is an opposition leader. However, numerous police personnel have been deployed in the area to control the situation. The traditional throwing of confettiwas carried out by some building occupants and a helicopter. The rally concluded by a dispersal made by the Philippine National Policearound 7:30 p.m. [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryID=30871 Cops disperse Makati rally] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 24, 2006] This is contrary to the statement of the police which said that the protesters "voluntarily" left the site where they held their protests.
On the morning of
February 26, 2006, the Armed Forces denied the text messages stating that there would be unusual military movements [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31128 AFP denies troop movement in Metro Manila] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 26, 2006] . Malacañang said that those statements who came from Mayor JV Ejercito of San Juan, Metro Manilaare not true. Mayor Ejercito denied the information that came from Malacañang. Malacañang also said that there are no unauthorized troop movements.
Fort Bonifacio crisis
Around 6:00 p.m. of
February 26, 2006, Maj. Gen. Renato Miranda was either relieved [ [http://msnbc.msn.com/id/11527450/from/RS.1/ Head of Philippine marines relieved of duty] MSNBC February 26, 2006] or was asked to be relieved from his position as Commandant of the Philippine Marines. Philippine NavyChief Vice Admiral Mateo Mayuga and Malacañang said that Miranda asked to be relieved because of personal reasons, while others perceived it as the firing of Miranda. He was replaced by Brig. Gen. Nelson Allaga, who will assume the position as Acting Commandant of Philippine Marines. Colonel Ariel Querubin protested those actions [ [http://www.tribune.net.ph/headlines/20060227hed1.html Coup rumors swirl; sacked colonel seeks civilian help] The Daily Tribune February 27, 2006] from the Philippine Navy and marines went to the chapel of Fort Bonifacio, to start their prayer vigil as their protest. Actions of these marines could lead to a "withdrawal of support." [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31127 Marine commandant gets wish for relief] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 26, 2006] [ [http://news.inq7.net/breaking/index.php?index=1&story_id=67608 Marine chief relieved at his request] INQ7.net. February 26, 2006] Presidential Chief-of-Staff Mike Defensor said that the decision is within the military so Malacañang has no influence of the matter. He also said that the media should not cover the events that was happening in the Fort (the major private stations covered the crisis in defiance, while the government-owned stations did not).
The armed forces implemented measures to counter the crisis such as blocking Lawton Ave. (which is the main road to the Fort) from possible protesters, turning off the lights in the Fort, and the deployment of loyalist troops to quell the situation.
However, former Vice President Teofisto Guingona, Jr.,
De La Salle UniversityPresident Bro. Armin Luistro, FSC, former President Cory Aquino, Rep. Benigno Aquino III, Sen. Ramon Magsaysay, Jr., Rep. Imee Marcos, and prominent opposition members went to Fort Bonifacio, but the Civil Disturbance Team went there 7:05 p.m. to control civilians. The civil society held their prayer vigils, lead by La Salle Brothers, in front of the Fort.
On the evening of
February 26, 2006, Capt. Geronimo said that the crisis between the Philippine Marines was over. The newly appointed Commandant of Philippine Marine Corps, Brig. Gen. Nelson Allaga, assumed control of all of the marines. Querubin was later fired from the armed forces. He bid his comrades goodbye at Marawi City.
New Marine Corps Commandant Brig. Gen. Allaga said that the situation in the Marines was over [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/topofthehour.aspx?StoryId=31144 Commandant: Marine standoff settled]
ABS-CBN Interactive February 26, 2006] and the whole Philippine Marine Corps will still will follow the " chain of command" [ [http://news.inq7.net/breaking/index.php?index=1&story_id=67637 Marines will follow the chain of command--Allaga] INQ7.net. February 26, 2006] despite of the events happened earlier. This is a result of a gentlemanly agreement to have a vote of whether to follow the chain of command or not. The result was 9 would follow the chain of command while 6 would not. [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31177 Officers' vote ends Marine standoff] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 27, 2006]
After the crisis, most people in front of Fort Bonifacio left [ [http://news.inq7.net/breaking/index.php?index=1&story_id=67635 Senga orders Queubin to stand down]
INQ7.net. February 26, 2006] . Malacañang declared the suspension of all classes on all school levels on the following day [ [http://news.inq7.net/breaking/index.php?index=1&story_id=67634 Palace: No classes in all levels] INQ7.net February 26, 2006] , as a response to the crisis at the Fort. Col. Querubin had also been relieved from his position commander of the 1st Marine Brigade and Lt. Col. Luisito Marcelino will temporarily take command of the brigade [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31358 Querubin stripped of command] ABS-CBN Interactive. March 1, 2006] [ [http://news.inq7.net/express/html_output/20060301-67935.xml.html Emotional Marine commander bids farewell to troops] INQ7.net. March 1, 2006] .
After the Makati rally, the Department of Justice sued former Senator
Gregorio Honasan, who had previously led coups against the Aquino government in the 1980s, and other six leaders of RAM ("Rebolusyonaryong Alyansang Makabansa" or Revolutionary Nationalist Alliance) for the 2003 Oakwood mutiny. On February 25, ANAK-PAWIS Party-list Representative Crispin Beltranwas shown a warrant and taken in for questioning under the state of emergency laws for an alleged role in a 1985coup against Ferdinand Marcos, a highly unusual and controversial move since the alleged case occurred over twenty years ago. Beltran has stated in response, "They say this is just an invitation but I think this is an arrest. Warrantless arrest, I think there will be more to come." [ " [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/MAN281455.htm Filipinos mark "people power" under emergency rule] " Reuters. 25 February 2006.] Rep. Beltran underwent inquest by the police on Monday, February 27, 2006and was charged for "inciting rebellion" and "conspiracy to commit rebellion."
Next, the police tried unsuccessfully to arrest
Bayan MunaParty-list Representative Satur Ocampo. Former chief of Philippine Constabularyretired General Ramon Montaño, who was former President Fidel V. Ramos’s national security adviser, was also arrested by the police [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=30987 Montaño arrest confirmed; Piad also nabbed] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 25, 2006] [ [http://news.inq7.net/breaking/index.php?index=1&story_id=67459 Retired general Montaño ‘invited’ for questioning by police] INQ7.net February 25, 2006] . He will be charged for inciting sedition. Former Police General Rex Piad was also arrested but later on it was revealed that there is no evidence to support his arrest.
February 27, 2006, the PNP–CIDG filed cases against 51 alleged communists, which included five party-list representatives ( Satur Ocampo, Crispin Beltran, Teodoro Casiño, Joel Virador, and Liza Maza), to the Department of Justice in violation of Article 134 in relation to Article 135 of the Revised Penal Code (rebellion/insurrection). A panel of prosecutors were assigned to the so-called "Batasan 5", but failed to find them guilty. [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/archives2006/feb27.htm Four party-list representatives among 51 persons linked to conspiracy to oust PGMA] Office of the Press Secretary. February 27, 2006] . Minority floor leader Rep. Francis Escudero of Sorsogonappealed to House Speaker Jose de Venecia to halt arrests among congressmen during the state of emergency. De Venecia assured protection among the members of the House [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31174 JDV: 'Protection' of House members assured] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 27, 2006] , and offered his office and his conference room for their stay. For 70 days the five legislators took refuge in the House of Representatives [ [http://news.inq7.net/nation/index.php?index=1&story_id=75601 INQ7.NET] ] . Later in May 11, 2006, the Department of Justice filed new charges against the Batasan 5, for plotting to instigate a rebellion on May 1st.
Freedom of the press
During a state of emergency, the government could control public utilities, which includes media, according to the constitution. Gonzalez assures that the government will not use these powers unnecessarily. However, there are reports that the Arroyo government suppresses the freedom of the press.
February 25, 2006, the PNP–CIDG raided The Daily Tribune of alleged assistance to the leftist groups and rebel military groups. [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=30997 Malacañan singles out Tribune in coup try] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 25, 2006] [ [http://news.inq7.net/top/index.php?index=1&story_id=67408 Cops enter Tribune office, get copies of mock-up issue] INQ7.net. February 25, 2006] [Tribune offices raided; publisher fights back The Daily Tribune. February 26, 2006]
There were also reports that the military surrounded ABS-CBN compound in Mother Ignacia, Diliman, Quezon City. Although they left the premises hours later.
Samahang Plaridel [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31248 Freedom of the press is the shining mark of civil society]
ABS-CBN Interactive. February 27, 2006] , National Union of Journalists of the Philippines [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31118 A call for solidarity] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 27, 2006] , and Committee to Protect Journalistswere all disappointed of Proclamation No. 1017, which, according to them, suppresses press freedom.
Lifting of the proclamation
March 1, 2006( Ash Wednesday), Arroyo has stated that she will lift the "state of emergency" soon, perhaps by the end of the first week of March. The President gives a 24 to 72 hour time frame to the Secretary of Justice, Secretary of National Defense, and to the Chief of Philippine National Policeto give reports to her before lifting the state of emergency. [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/statement2006_mar01.htm PGMA's Message on the possible early lifting of Proclamation 1017] Office of the Press Secretary. March 1, 2006] [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/today.htm#Proclamation Proclamation 1017 will be lifted as soon as possible, says PGMA] Office of the Press Secretary. March 1, 2006] [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31411 "Arroyo: Possible lifting of 1017 in 24-72 hours"] . ABS-CBN Interactive. March 1, 2006]
March 3, 2006, by the virtue of Proclamation No. 1021, the Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyoofficially concluded state of emergency in the Philippines. The state of emergency ( Proclamation No. 1017) lasted one weeksince February 24, 2006. According to her, the state of emergency protected major democratic institutions... and even the media [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/proc_no1021.htm Proclamation No. 1021] Office of the Press Secretary. March 3, 2006] [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/statement2006_mar03.htm PGMA's Statement on the lifting of Proclamation 1017] Office of the Press Secretary. March 3, 2006] [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/statement2006english_mar03.htm PGMA's Statement on the lifting of Proclamation 1017 (English version)] Office of the Press Secretary. March 3, 2006] . This led to lowering of security alerts of the Philippine National Policeand Armed Forces of the Philippines.
A number of observers have drawn parallels between the actions of President Arroyo and those of
Ferdinand Marcos. Benito Lim, Professor of Political Science at the University of the Philippines, stated, "This is suppression of all freedom. It is in violation of the constitution and the bill of rights. This is the beginning of using stronger measures to quell dissent against the government. Their justification is reminiscent of Marcos when he proclaimed martial law." [ " [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/MAN73864.htm Manila's Arroyo declares emergency rule] " Reuters. 24 February 2006. ]
February 24, 2006, the Philippine National Policeviolently dispersed protesters from EDSA. The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippinesdenounced the violence, and advised the President to be calm in handling the protests [ [http://www.cbcponline.net/html/statements.html Call to Patriotism] Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines February 24, 2006] [ [http://www.cbcponline.net/html/news1-feb24.html GMA's state of emergency draws concern from the Church] Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines February 24, 2006] [ [http://www.tribune.net.ph/ CBCP head appeals for calm amid violent protest dispersals] The Daily Tribune. February 25, 2006] . Archbishop Oscar Cruz of Dagupan City, Pangasinanand other bishops were not happy of the proclamation from the President stating that the Philippines is under a state of emergency, [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31400 Bishops to break silence on '1017'] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 28, 2006] however the CBCP wants the people to be vigilant of the situation [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31319 Bishops urge vigilance over '1017'] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 28, 2006] .
Former President Ramos said that he was disappointed of the declaration of state of emergency to just prevent an uprising of a small faction of the military, saying it was
overkill. The former President describes his cold relationship to President Arroyo as "Waning, waning."
Former President Joseph Estrada appealed to Arroyo to remove the declaration of State of Emergency as it will not benefit most of the people in the country. He also condemns "baseless arrests" and the alleged dictatorship rule. [ [http://www.tribune.net.ph/headlines/20060227hed2.html Erap urges Gloria: Recall ‘1017’] The Daily Tribune.
February 27, 2006]
Fernando Poe, Jr.'s widow Susan Roces said that last week, President Arroyo said that she is the best President of the country, "Is this the best?" Roces is referring to the speech of Arroyo regarding a meeting with the Foreign Correspondents Association of the Philippines (FOCAP) saying: "And let me also make clear: I believe I am the best person to lead this nation through this transition. I was elected to make difficult decisions, and I have made them. Not without mistakes on my part, and certainly not without significant criticism. But I have the experience of hindsight, and I aim to fulfill my term with a steady hand on the helm." [ [http://www.ops.gov.ph/speeches2006/speech-2006_feb21.htm PGMA's Speech during the meeting with the Foreign Correspondents Association of the Philippines (FOCAP)] Office of the Press Secretary
February 21, 2006]
The Lasallian Brothers issued a letter about the current political crisis in the country. One of their main points is: "We wish to reaffirm that the most peaceful and expedient way to resolve the current crisis is for President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo to make the supreme sacrifice and to resign voluntarily, an option fully in consonance with the Constitution, in order to pave the way for a smooth and peaceful transition of power." which calls for the resignation of President Arroyo [ [http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/announcements/pdf/fsc_letter.pdf FSC Letter to the Philippine Lasallian Family]
De La Salle University. February 28, 2006] .
In the statement of Presidential Spokesperson Sec. Ignacio Bunye, he said that "The actions of the government have been well calibrated and there is no overkill... Had the President not acted as she did, we would now be under a rightist-communist junta." [ [http://www.op.gov.ph/news.asp?newsid=14517 Statement of Secretary Ignacio R. Bunye: No Overkill] Office of the President
February 26, 2006]
Noli de Castroaffirms President Arroyo's declaration. He said, "I respect the right of the President to declare a state of emergency in order to preserve the peace, maintain law and order, and ensure the protection of human rights and civil liberties of the people for as long as there is imminent threat to public safety."
March 1, 2006, de Castro wants to remove the state of emergency since "there is no more emergency", according to him [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31402 De Castro wants emergency rule lifted sooner] ABS-CBN Interactive. March 1, 2006] [ [http://news.inq7.net/express/html_output/20060301-67936.xml.html De Castro calls for lifting of state of emergency] INQ7.net. March 1, 2006] .
In a press statement, the
United States, through the U.S. Department of State welcomed President Arroyo's lifting of the State of National Emergency expressing optimism towards deeper cooperation on important issues including counter-terrorism, regional cooperation and security, defense reform, strengthening democracy and economic development. [ [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2006/62565.htm Philippines: Lifting of State of National Emergency] U.S. Department of State March 3, 2006.]
The President cited Article 7 Section 18 of the Constitution which states that: "The President…whenever necessary... may call out the armed forces to prevent or suppress... rebellion..." and Article 12 Section 17 of the Constitution which states that: "In times of national emergency, when the public interest so requires, the State may, during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over or direct the operations of privately owned public utilities or business affected with public interest." Sec. Gonzalez of the Department of Justice said that the government had not yet reached that point. [ [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/archives2006/feb24.htm Declaration of State of National Emergency authorized by Charter] Office of the Press Secretary.
February 24, 2006]
Lawyers question Proclamation No. 1017 stating that the whole nation is under State of Emergency and other actions of the government in the
Supreme Court of the Philippinesby issuing multiple petitions. [ [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=31196 Emergency rule questioned before SC] ABS-CBN Interactive. February 27, 2006] [ [http://today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=worldNews&storyID=2006-02-27T024627Z_01_MAN87790_RTRUKOC_0_US-PHILIPPINES.xml Coup tension eases but Arroyo faces legal challenge] Reuters. February 26, 2006]
Days after the lifting of the declaration of a state of emergency, several Scout Ranger officers, including Lamitan Hero, Army
Captain Ruben Guinolbay, were ordered investigated and detained. [ [http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=news03_mar10_2006 25 soldiers linked to coup plot detained] [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=32174 Ranger officers linked to coup plot] ]
Eventually, 25 Scout Rangers officers were arrested but were charged only on
August 2, 2006after several months in detention. [ [http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/aug/03/yehey/top_stories/20060803top4.html 26 military officers in coup plot charged] . ] Also charged were several Marine officers allegedly involved in the Fort Bonifacio incident.
Those charged were Brigadier General Danilo Lim, Lieutenant Colonels Nestor Flordeliza and Edmundo Malabanjot; Majors Jason Aquino, and Jose Leomar Doctolero; Captains James Sababan, Montano Almodovar, Joey Fontiveros, Ruben Guinolbay, Isagani Criste, William Upano, Dante Langkit, Allan Aurino, and Frederick Sales; and First Lieutenants Ervin Divinagracia, Jacon Cordero, Homer Estolas, Sandro Sereno and Richiemel Caballes of the Philippine Army Scout Rangers. The indicted Marine officers are Major General Renato Miranda, Medal of Valor awardees Col. Ariel Querubin, Lt. Col. Custodio Parcon; Colonels Orlando de Leon, Januario Caringal and Armando Bañez; Lieutenant Colonels Valentin Hizon, Romulo Gualdrapa, and Achilles Segumalian; Maj. Francisco Domingo Fernandez; and 1Lt. Belinda Ferrer.
The pretrial investigation panel formed by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, conducted by the Judge Advocate General's Office and headed by Col. Al Pereras recommended the dismissal of the charge of mutiny but the retention of charges for conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman for a few of the detained officers. All charges against Capt. Guinolbay were recommended dismissed. [ [http://www.malaya.com.ph/nov22/news2.htm Esperon mum on reversal of recommendation to clear Lim, others] ] . The same however, was overturned by Chief of Staff Hermogenes Esperon, allegedly upon the recommendation of the Staff Judge Advocate, even as Marine Lt. Cols Valentin Hizon and Romulo Gualdrapa were dropped as accused by Gen. Esperon's exercise of discretion. [ [http://www.inquirer.net/specialfeatures/stateofemergency/view.php?db=1&article=20070301-52340 No pitch for mutiny raps vs ‘coup plotters’--military chief] ]
* [http://www.news.ops.gov.ph/archives2006/feb24.htm#Emergency Office of the Press Secretary Online: PGMA declares a State of National Emergency]
* [http://www.tribune.net.ph/ The Daily Tribune: Without Fear or Favor]
* [http://www.cbcponline.net/ The Official Website of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines] – CBCP online
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4745716.stm BBC: Emergency declared in Philippines]
* [http://news.inq7.net/top/index.php?index=1&story_id=67295 INQ7: Arroyo declares state of emergency]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1716940,00.html Guardian: State of emergency in Philippines]
* [http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/72545/ IFEX: Media targeted under state of emergency] - IFEX
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