- Annadel State Park
Infobox_protected_area | name = Annadel State Park
iucn_category = II
Lupines in a meadow, Annadel State Park
Sonoma County, California, USA
Kenwood, California; Santa Rosa, California
lat_degrees = 38
lat_minutes = 25
lat_seconds = 45
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 122
long_minutes = 37
long_seconds = 30
long_direction = W
area = 5,000 acres (20 km²)
established = 1971
California Department of Parks and Recreation
Annadel State Park,
Sonoma County, California, USA[gnis|1799522|Annadel State Park] is situated at the northern edge of Sonoma Valleyand offers many recreational activities within its 5,000 acre (20 km²) property. At its north end, it connects to Spring Lake Regional Parkin Santa Rosa, California.
The rock formations of Annadel have been central to its history: from volcanic origin; to Native American use of
obsidian; to early 1900s mining of cobblestones; and now hikers' appreciating the volcanic rock outcrops.
These lands were occupied by the
Wappoand Pomo peoplein prehistoric times, who would have primarily inhabited the riparian zones and the marsh perimeter. Annadel includes what some biologists consider the best example of undisturbed northern oak woodlands in existence. [http://www.parks.sonoma.net/Annadel.html Annadel State Park facts] ] Visitors can enjoy the park's diverse wildlifeand scenery during any time of the year but are perhaps most rewarded from April through June when most wildflowers are in bloom.
Plant communities include
California oak woodland, Douglas fir forest, chaparral, grassland, marshand woodland riparian zone. The dominant plant community is the oak woodland, which has a canopy of coast live oak, Garry oak, Black oak, Pacific Madrone, Bigleaf mapleand California laurel. Occasionally in the vicinity of drainage swales and creeks, Canyon live oakis found. In the oak woodlands, the dominant understoryplants are native bunchgrass, toyon, blackberry, western poison-oakand in drier patches coyote brush. In some of the steeper, cooler riparian zones and north facing slopes, there are also significant groves of Douglas fir. Common animals observed include Black-tailed Deer, gray squirrel, raccoon, skunkand opossum. Less frequently bobcatand mountain lionare seen. There is abundant birdlife including the scrub jay, Steller's jay, Acorn woodpecker, Black Phoebeand junco. A number of amphibians occur near riparianhabitats, including the Rough skinned newt, "Taricha granulosa".
Hydrology and geology
The southern reaches of Annadel are drained by
Yulupa Creekand other tributaries of Sonoma Creek, while the northern flanks are part of the Santa Rosa Creekwatershed. ["Santa Rosa Quadrangle", Fifteen minute series, USGSQuadrangle Map, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC (1958)] Eastern slopes are drained by Yulupa Creekand Sonoma Creek, while the western slopes are part of the Spring Creek watershed. Many of Annadel's streams are dry in the summer, since rainfall is highly seasonal, with most of the approximately 30 inches ] (760 mm) of annual precipitation occurring between the months of October and April: however, Ledson Marsh retains some smaller pools of water throughout most of the year. Ledson Marsh has a southern outlet to Yulupa Creek. the highest elevation within Annadel is Bennett Mountain, 1887 feet.
The entirety of Annadel was below the ocean floor as recently as twelve million years ago, around which time massive
upliftand volcanic action formed the massifwhich comprises the park of today. Elevations in Annadel range from about 360 to 1,880 feet ] (200–600 m) above sea level. Sandstoneis the dominant rock type, as a remnant of the ancient sea floor. Slopes within Annadel commonly range from 15 to 30 percent, but it is not uncommon to encounter slopes up to 70 percent on steep slopes above drainages which are covered in douglas fir forest. One of the major soil associations within the park is Goulding cobbly clay loam, which contains roughly 25 percent cobblestones, as well as some basaltic exposures, betraying the volcanic past of the Sonoma Mountainsformation. ["Soil Survey, Sonoma County, California", U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Government Printing Office, Washington DC, May 1972] Typical soil depths are 35 to 50 centimeters (13.75–19.7 in). Much of the soil type in the Yulupa Creek riparian zoneconsists of Laniger loam, with rhyoliteoutcrops, another relic of the igneoushistory.
Pomo peopleand the Southern Wappoinhabitated these lands in prehistoric times, although no full scale villages have been discovered within the park boundaries. This site was valuable to the Native American tribes as a source of obsidian, which these early peoples utilized for the manufacture of scrapers, knives, arrowheads, and spearheads. Archealogical evidence suggests they used the area as a quarry at least as far back as 3000 years. [Krumbein, Bill. Annadel State Park: The First Twenty Years. 1st ed. Desktop Publishing, 1993. pg 96-97] Human use and settlement of this area changed markedly in the late 18th century when the Spanish came to this region. Cattleranching and farminggradually replaced the prehistoric tribal hunting and gathering.
In 1837, Annadel was part of Los Guilicos
Mexican land grantthat involved a total holding of 19,000 acres (77 km²). In the late 19th century, sheep and cattle grazingwas superseded by quarryuses. In 1848 the lands of Annadel were purchased by Scottish immigrant William Hood, for whom nearby Hood Mountainwas named. In the mid 1800s, most of the native tribes were either displaced onto reservations or died from conditions of servitudeto the European settlers. There was considerable demand for cobblestone material when many west coast cities were being developed, and especially in the reconstruction of San Francisco after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Cobblestone quarry operations were a major source of revenue to the Wymores and the Hutchinsons who were the principal land owners in this area around the year 1900. In fact, the park derives its name from the granddaughter, Annie Hutchinson, since this locale was once termed "Annie's Dell". ] In the early 1900s, author Jack Londonsettled nearby in these same Sonoma Mountains, and he based much of his writings on these mountains that he loved. [Tom Stienstra and Michael Hodgson, "California Hiking", 1996-96 edition, Foghorn Press (1995) ISBN 0-935701-93-1]
Demand for cobblestone subsided around the year 1920, since owners of the newly invented
automobileexpected a smoother ride than that derived from cobblestone streets. Joe Coney began to accumulate land holdings in this area during the 1930s. He used the land for agricultural purposes until the late 1960s, though he also mined perlite, an obsidian product used in the manufacture of certain insulation products. Annadel became part of the California State Park system in the year 1971.
The main park access is from the north via the city of Santa Rosa. An important secondary access is from the Lawndale Road trailhead in Kenwood, which access is the shortest route to Ledson Marsh. There are 35 miles ] (56 km) of trails for
hiking, mountain biking, and trail riding. In addition, excellent black bass and bluegill fishingcan be found at the park's largest body of water, Lake Ilsanjo. Dogs are not allowed in the park. There is no potable wateravailable in the park.
List of California state parks
* [http://www.parks.ca.gov/pages/480/files/Annadel.pdf State of California official site for Annadel State Park]
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