History of Bengali literature


History of Bengali literature
Bengali literature
Bengali literature
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Bengali language
Bengali literary history
History of Bengali literature
Bengali language authors
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Contents

Ancient Age

Charyapada

Charyapada is the oldest known Bengali written form. It is actually collection of poems. It was written on 9th century and Harprashad Sastri discovered in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907. It is a palm leaf manuscript. Charyapada's language is referred to as Alo-Andhari (light and shadow), meaning twilight language. The manuscript has 47 verses, written by 23 poets, probably lived between the 9th and 11th centuries AD. And came from the various regions of Bengal, Orissa, Assam and Bihar. Some poets Sarhapa, shabar pa, Luipa, Dombipa, Bhusukupa, kahnapa, Kukkuripa, Minapa, Aryadev, Dhendhanpa.

Middle Age

Early Vaishnab Literature

Shrikrishna Kirtana

A torn manuscript of the Sreekrishna Kirtana Kabya was discovered by Basanta Ranjan Roy Biddyadwallav in 1909 from the house of Debendranath Chatterjee at a village named kakinla in the district of Bankura [West Bengal]. Shreekrishna Kirtana Kabya was composed by Boru Chandidas. While, Charyapada shows us the most ancient example of Bengali language, Shreekrishna Kirtana depicts a new kind of speech style very clearly. According to Suniti Kumar Chatterjee, “The Grammar of the speech of the Shreekrishna Kirtana gives a clue to many of the forms of New Bengali”

Padavali of Vidyapati

The padas of Vidyapati, though written in Maithili influenced the medieval Bengali poets immensely.

Padavali of Chandidas

A large number of padas related to the love of Radha and Krishna in Bengali with the bhanita of Chandidas are found with three different sobriquets along with his name, Baḍu, Dvija and Dina as well as without any sobriquet also. It is not clear whether these bhanitas actually refer to the same person or not.

Early translations from Sanskrit

Early Mangalkavyas

The Mangalkavyas were written to popularise the worship of a number of deities, mostly Manasa and Chandi. This genre of Bengali literature includes the majority of works of the medieval Bengali literature. This genre includes the following sub-genres:

Hagiography of Sri Chaitanya

Chaitanya Bhagavat of Vrindavana Dasa

The Chaitanya Bhagavata is the earliest hagiographical work on Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, written by Vrindavana Dasa

Chaitanya Mangal of Jayananda

Chaitanya Mangal of Lochan Dasa

Chaitanya Charitamrita of Krishnadasa Kaviraja

The Chaitanya Charitamrita is the magnum-opus of the Bengali saint/author Krishna Dasa Kaviraja (1496-? CE). The book, a hybrid Bengali and Sanskrit biography, documents the life and precepts of the Vaishnava saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533), who is considered by his followers to be an incarnation of Radha and Krishna combined. Chaitanya is a pivotal figure of the Hindu sect Gaudiya Vaishnavism.

As a religious text, the Chaitanya Charitamrita is the main theological resource for Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology and is divided into three sections, Adi-lila, Madhya-lila and Antya-lila.

Later Vaishnab literature

  • Padavali of Balaram Dasa
  • Padavali of Jnandasa
  • Padavali of Govinda Dasa Kabiraj

Later Mangal Kavyas

Translation of Mahabharata

  • Kabindra Parameswara
  • Srikar Nandi
  • Kashiram Das

Muslim poets of the 17th century

Works of Raigunakar Bharatchandra

  • Annada Mangal
  • Bidya Sundar

Shakta Padavali

Baul Songs

  • Lalon Fakir

Early Modern Age

Essay

Poetry

Drama

Novel/short story

Modern Age

Essay

Poetry

Binayak Bandyopadhyay Srijato Angshuman Kar Yashodhara Roychowdhury

Anupam Mukhopadhyay Souvik Bandyopadhyay

Drama

Novel/short story

Periodicals

  • Digdarsh
  • Kledaja Kusum[1]
  • Kabita Pratimase
  • Samachar Darpan
  • Basana
  • Bibhab
  • Bangal Gegeti
  • Bhashanagar
  • Bhasabandhan
  • Brahman Sebadhi
  • Ratrir Chorus
  • Sangbad Koumudi
  • Parikatha
  • Samachar Chandrika
  • Tatvabodhini Patrika
  • Bibidhartha Sangraha
  • Sangbad Prabhakar
  • Bangadarshan
  • Masik Patrika
  • Somprakash
  • Bangalee
  • Bharati
  • Bangabasi
  • Hitbadi
  • Haowa49
  • Khadem
  • Nabanoor
  • Sadhana
  • Sahitya
  • Sanjibani
  • Shanibarer Chithi
  • Prabasi
  • Sabujpatra
  • Desh
  • Kallol
  • Kabita
  • Krittibas
  • Kaurab
  • Kobisena
  • Kabisammelan
  • Abar esechhi fire
  • Suryatrishna
  • Uttarsuri
  • Prakalpana Sahitya:Prakalpana Literature
  • Ekak
  • Gangotri
  • Anyadin
  • Kalpratima
  • Bakcharcha
  • Diba Ratrir Kavya
  • Kavitayug
  • Ghorsawar
  • Indrani
  • Anjas
  • Hillol
  • Jalsa
  • Patranu
  • Zebra
  • Unmarga
  • Pratidwandi

Post-modern Age:

Poets: Prabhat Coudhury Malay Roychowdhury Nasser Hossain Gauranga Mitra Nikhil Kumar Sarkar

Periodicals:

Kabita Pakshik Kabita 10 Dine

Modern Bangladeshi literature

  • Mohammad Rafiq
  • Nirmalendu Goon
  • Rubee Rahman
  • Humayun Azad
  • Abul Hasan (1947-1975)
  • Muhammad Nurul Huda
  • Helal Hafiz
  • Abid Azad
  • Robbani Chowdhury
  • Rudro Muhammad Shahidullah
  • Taslima Nasrin
  • Khondakar Ashraf Hossain
  • Rezauddin Stalin
  • Aminul Islam (poet)
  • Rahman Henry
  • Alfred Khokon
  • Hassanal Abdullah

The Hungryalist movement

The Hungryalist movement, better known as Hungry generation was launched from the Patna residence of Malay Roy Choudhury in November 1961 by Malay along with Shakti Chattopadhyay, Samir Roychoudhury and Haradhon Dhara alias Debi Roy. Later around 30 more poets, writers and painters joined the movement. In view of their anti-establishment writings, some of them were arrested in 1964, and ultimately charges were framed against Malay Roy Choudhury for his poem Stark Electric Jesus. He was jailed by the lower court, though the High Court exonerated him. The police action resulted into disbanding of the movement in 1965. However, the movement had a lasting effect, inasmuch as the writing trend changed, and subsequently there was a little magazine explosion.


The Little Magazine movement

Amritlok Since 1970 A leading Bengali Magazine edited by Samiran Majumder. It is a literary and cultural magazine. Prime cult-figures of Amritlok is now Tapadhir Bhattacharya, Biplab Majee, Anupam Mukhopadhyay, Pradipan Dasgupta, Tripti Sntra, Sarasij Basu, Ashok Biswas and others.

Kaurab

Major changes occurred in the Bengali Literature centering the Little Magazine Movement in the 1970s, with Kaurab - as the hub. Kaurab is a literary & cultural magazine which is about four decades old. Prime cult-figures of Kaurab are Swadesh Sen, Kamal Chakraborty, Barin Ghosal, Shankar Lahiri, Shankar Chakraborty,Pranabkumar Chattopadhyay and Aryanil Mukhopadhyay.

New Poetry (Natun Kabita)

Since the mid 80's Bengali Literature experienced a new genre of Bengali poetry called New Poetry. From the early 90's with impetus from a Kolkata based poetry journal Kabita Campus, New Poetry has begun to gain immense acclamation from young contemporary poets of Bengal. In 2003 some poets of this genre have started a journal named Natun Kabita containing their ideas and poems, through, both, online and print media. Another new age poetry magazine in the same sphere is Boikhoribhashya. Poets associated with this literary movement are:

Barin Ghosal,Pranabkumar Chattopadhyay, Ranjan Maitra, Swapan Roy, Dhiman Chakraborty, Alok Biswas, Pronob Pal, Saumitra Sengupta, Arupratan Ghosh, Indranil Ghosh, Amitava Praharaj and Debanjan Das.

Rajarshi Chattopadhyay, Atanu Bandopadhyay, Pradip Chakraborty are the poets who joined this movement in the mid 90's.

New Age / iAge The age of info-literature

In West Bengal the first decade of this century (2000–09) is considered[by whom?] to be the period of a New Age , iAge Little Magazine Movement. The magazines prominent[says who?] in this period are: infolit/tathyasahitya, iSahitya, Nirjon Swakkhor, Sanjhbati, Lalon, Bodhshabdo, Pratishedhak, ekok dosok sohor,Abosardanga, Ashtray, Ahir, Byas, Thek etc.

Major figures[according to whom?] rising from the period are: Rangeet Mitra, Soumitra Roy,Soutik Hati, Aritra Sanyal, Animikh Patra, Souptik Chakraborty, Arjun Bandopadhyay, Somtirtha Nandi, Susnata Jana, Himalay Jana, Susnato Chowdhury, Kaushik Bhowmik, Arindam Ray, Tanmay Mandal, Anamitra Roy, Rohon Kuddus, Sanghamitra Haldar, Himadri Mukhopadhyay, Subhendu Choudhury, Nilanjan Karmakar, Somnath Ghosal, Swadesh Misra, Swagata Dasgupta, Nabendu Bikash Ray, Arko Chattopadhyay, Ripon Fio, Dipangsu Acharya, Atanu Sinha, Sayantan Mukhopadhyay, Paramita das, Souva Chattopadhyay, Deb Maity, Saibal Sarkar, Arup Ghosh, Koel Mitra.

There is a ‘Little Magazine Library and Research Centre’ run by Sandip Dutta since 1978 at Tamer Lane, Kolkata, India which collects Bengali little magazines published from anywhere in the world[citation needed].

Literary movement


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