East Jerusalem


East Jerusalem
Map of East Jerusalem

East Jerusalem refers to the parts of Jerusalem captured and annexed by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and then captured and annexed by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. It includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The term "East Jerusalem" may refer to either the area under Jordanian rule between 1949 and 1967 which was incorporated into the municipality of Jerusalem after 1967, covering some 70 km2 (27 sq mi) (much of which is geographically north and south of the city center as well as east), or the territory of the pre-1967 Jordanian controlled part of the Jerusalem municipality, covering 6.4 km2 (2.5 sq mi) (only geographically east of the city center, mainly the predominantly Arab business district, the Old City and surrounding neighborhoods). East Jerusalem is the proclaimed capital of the proposed Palestine[1] although Ramallah serves as the administrative capital. Israel has declared all of Jerusalem, both East and West sections, as its undivided eternal capital.

Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Jerusalem was divided into two parts—the western portion, populated primarily by Jews, came under Israeli rule, while the eastern portion, populated mainly by Muslim and Christian Palestinians, came under Jordanian rule. Arabs living in such western Jerusalem neighbourhoods as Katamon or Malha were forced to leave; the same fate befell Jews in the eastern areas, including the Old City and Silwan. The only eastern area of the city that remained in Israeli hands throughout the 19 years of Jordanian rule was Mount Scopus, where the Hebrew University is located, which formed an enclave during that period and therefore is not considered part of East Jerusalem.

Following the 1967 Six-Day War, the eastern part of Jerusalem came under Israeli rule, along with the entire West Bank. Shortly after the Israeli takeover, East Jerusalem was annexed, together with several neighboring West Bank villages. In November 1967, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 was passed, calling for Israel to withdraw "from territories occupied in the recent conflict". In 1980, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Law, which declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel",[2] thus formalizing Israel's unilateral annexation. This declaration was declared "null and void" by United Nations Security Council Resolution 478.

Contents

Political term

East Jerusalem is an ambiguous term with heavy political implications. The term Arab Jerusalem is used in official English language documents by Arabs emphasizing the Arabic speaking Palestinian population and distinguishing it from the Hebrew speaking parts of the city. Israelis call the Arab populated part of the city East Jerusalem because of its location in the eastern part of the single larger Jerusalem city unit.[3]

The term East Jerusalem is misleading and may be used to refer to either of the following:

  • From 1948 to 1967 it referred to the 6.4 km2 (2.5 sq mi) Jordanian part of the city, just as “West Jerusalem” referred to the Israeli part of the city.
  • It may be applied to the area that Israel annexed and included in municipal Jerusalem following its capture by Israel from Jordan in 1967, which lies north, east and south of the former East Jerusalem. This area includes an additional approximate 64 km2 (25 sq mi) of the West Bank, including territory which previously included 28 villages and areas of the Bethlehem and Beit Jala municipalities.[4][5]

History

Jordanian rule

Jerusalem was to be an international city under the 1947 UN Partition Plan. It was not included as a part of either the proposed Jewish or Arab states.

During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the western part of Jerusalem was captured by Israel, while East Jerusalem (including the Old City) was captured by Jordan. The 1948 Arab-Israeli War came to an end with the signing of the 1949 Armistice Agreements.[6]

According to Mike Evans, a Zionist Christian Evangelist, upon its capture, the Jordanians immediately expelled all the Jewish residents of the Jewish Quarter. 58 synagogues were destroyed,[7] and the Jewish Quarter was bulldozed.[citation needed] The ancient Jewish cemetery on Mount of Olives was desecrated, and the tombstones there were used for construction and paving roads.[citation needed] Jordan also destroyed the Jewish villages of Atarot and Neve Yaakov just north of Jerusalem (their sites became Jerusalem neighborhoods after 1967).

East Jerusalem absorbed some of the refugees from West Jerusalem's Arab neighborhoods that came under Israeli rule. Thousands of Arab refugees who were displaced from their homes in Israeli-held West Jerusalem were settled in the previously Jewish areas of East Jerusalem.[6]

In 1950 East Jerusalem, along with the rest of the West Bank, was annexed by Jordan. However, the annexation of the West Bank was recognized only by the United Kingdom, although the Israeli and Jordanian annexations of the two parts of Jerusalem were given only de facto recognition. During the period of Jordanian rule, East Jerusalem lost much of its importance, as it was no longer a capital, and losing its link to the coast diminished its role as a commercial hub. It even saw a population decrease, with merchants and administrators moving to Amman. On the other hand, it maintained its religious importance, as well as its role as a regional center. Reaffirming a 1953 statement, Jordan in 1960 declared Jerusalem its second capital.[8] The USA (and other powers) protested this plan, and stated it could not "recognize or associate itself in any way with actions which confer upon Jerusalem the attributes of a seat of government . . ." [9]

During the 1960s Jerusalem saw economic improvement and its tourism industry developed significantly, and its holy sites attracted growing numbers of pilgrims, but Israelis of all religions were not allowed into East Jerusalem.[6][10]

The Kendall Town Scheme was commissioned by the Jordanian government in 1966 to link East Jerusalem with the surrounding towns and villages, integrating them into a metropolitan area. This plan was not implemented, as East Jerusalem came under Israeli rule the following year.

Israeli rule

During the Six-Day War of 1967 Israel captured the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and eventually incorporated Eastern Jerusalem and its surroundings into the municipality of Jerusalem, including several neighboring villages.[11] This move, amounting to 111 km2 (43 sq mi)[dubious ] of West Bank territory,[12] excluded many of East Jerusalem's suburbs and divided several villages.

Under Israeli rule, members of all religions are largely granted access to their holy sites, with the Muslim Waqf maintaining control of the Temple Mount and the Muslim holy sites there. The old Mughrabi Quarter (Moroccan) in front of the Western Wall was bulldozed three days after its capture, leading to the deaths of several residents in the forced resettlement of its 135 families.[12][13][14] It was replaced with a large open air plaza. The Jewish Quarter, destroyed in 1948, was depopulated, rebuilt and resettled by Jews.[12]

With the stated purpose of preventing infiltration during the Second Intifada, Israel decided to surround Jerusalem's eastern perimeter with a security barrier. The structure has separated East Jerusalem neighborhoods from the West Bank suburbs, all of which are under the jurisdiction of Israel and the IDF. The planned route of the separation barrier has raised much criticism, with the Israeli Supreme Court ruling that certain sections of the barrier (including East Jerusalem sections) must be re-routed.

In the January 25, 2006 Palestinian Legislative Elections, 6,300 East Jerusalem Arabs were registered and permitted to vote locally. All other residents had to travel to West Bank polling stations. Hamas won four seats and Fatah two, even though Hamas was barred by Israel from campaigning in the city. Fewer than 6,000 residents were permitted to vote locally in the prior 1996 elections.

In March 2009, a confidential "EU Heads of Mission Report on East Jerusalem" was published, in which the Israeli government was accused of "actively pursuing the illegal annexation" of East Jerusalem. The report stated: "Israeli 'facts on the ground' - including new settlements, construction of the barrier, discriminatory housing policies, house demolitions, restrictive permit regime and continued closure of Palestinian institutions - increase Jewish Israeli presence in East Jerusalem, weaken the Palestinian community in the city, impede Palestinian urban development and separate East Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank."[15]

Demographics

A census conducted by the Israeli authorities in 1967 registered 66,000 Palestinian residents (44,000 residing in the area known before the 1967 war as East Jerusalem; and 22,000, in the West Bank area annexed to Jerusalem after the war). Only a few hundred Jews were living in East Jerusalem at that time. By June 1993, a Jewish majority was established in East Jerusalem: 155,000 Jews were officially registered residents, as compared to 150,000 Palestinians.[16]

At the end of 2008, the population of East Jerusalem was 456,300, comprising 60% of Jerusalem's residents. Of these, 195,500 (43%) are Jews, (comprising 40% of the Jewish population of Jerusalem as a whole), 260,800 (57%) are Muslim (comprising 98% of the Muslim population of Jerusalem).[17] The size of the Palestinian population living in East Jerusalem is controversial because of political implications. In 2008, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics reported the number of Palestinians living in East Jerusalem was 208,000 according to a recently completed census.[18]

At the end of 2008, East Jerusalem's main Arab neighborhoods include Shuafat (38,800), Beit Hanina (27,900), Muslim Quarter (26,300) A-Tor incl. A-Sawana (24,400). East Jerusalem's main Jewish neighborhoods include Ramot Alon (42,200), Pisgat Ze'ev (42,100), Gilo (26,900), Neve Yaakov (20,400), Ramat Shlomo (15,100) and East Talpiot (12,200). The Old City has an Arab population of 36,681 and a Jewish population of 3,847.[19]

Status

Jerusalem municipal area

East Jerusalem is the proclaimed capital of Palestine.[1] Ramallah serves as the administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority.

Sovereignty

On June 28, 1967, Israel incorporated East Jerusalem into one administrative and municipal area, and placed it under the law, jurisdiction, and administration of the State of Israel, under order.[20] The international community regarded the move as a de facto annexation,[21] and deemed Israeli jurisdiction invalid in a subsequent non-binding United Nations General Assembly resolution.[22] In a reply to the resolution, Israel denied that these measures constituted annexation,[23] but the Israeli Supreme Court later ruled that the Jerusalem's eastern sector had become a part of Israel. In 1980, the Knesset adopted the "Jerusalem Law" as a Basic Law, declaring Jerusalem "complete and united", to be "the capital of Israel". The new law formally annexed East Jerusalem to Israel. Boundaries were not mentioned in the law,[24] therefore applying the law to Jerusalem's eastern municipal boundaries. In response, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 478 (the U.S. abstained), declaring the law to be "null and void" and a violation of international law. In 1988, Jordan, while rejecting Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem, renounced its territorial claims to the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

The Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles, signed September 13, 1993, deferred the settlement of the permanent status of Jerusalem to the final stages of negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. The Palestinian National Authority views the future permanent status of East Jerusalem as the capital of the Palestinian state.[25] The possibility of a Palestinian capital in East Jerusalem was considered by Israel for the first time in the Taba Summit in 2001,[26] though these negotiations ended without an agreement and this possibility has not been considered by Israel since.

In 1990 the United States Senate adopted a resolution "acknowledging Jerusalem as Israel's capital" and stating that it "strongly believes that Jerusalem must remain an undivided city."[27] In 1991 however, United States Secretary of State James Baker stated that the United States is "opposed to the Israeli annexation of east Jerusalem and the extension of Israeli law on it and the extension of Jerusalem’s municipal boundaries".[28] Historically, the US had viewed East Jerusalem as forming part of the West Bank, a territory under belligerent occupation.[29] However, the subsequent Clinton Administration refused to characterise East Jerusalem as being under occupation and viewed it as a territory over which sovereignty was undefined.[29] Vice President Gore stated that the US viewed "united Jerusalem" as the capital of Israel.[29] In light of this designation, the US has since abstained from Security Council resolutions which use language which construes East Jerusalem as forming part of the West Bank.[29] In 1995, Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act which declared that Jerusalem should remain undivided and that it should be recognized as Israel's capital.

Some international law experts, such as Julius Stone, have argued that Israel has sovereignty over East Jerusalem under international law, since Jordan did not have legal sovereignty over the territory, and thus Israel was entitled in an act of self-defense during the Six Day War to "fill the vacuum".[30]

Some international law experts such as Howard Grief have argued that Israel obtained de jure sovereignty over Palestine under the San Remo Agreement which transformed the Balfour Declaration into International Law. Grief states that under the International law doctrine of acquired rights, codified in the 1969 Vienna Convention on Treaties, when England abandoned its League of Nations "mandate" or trusteeship as the arrangement is now referred to by the UN, Israel, the beneficiary of the political rights over Palestine kept the sovereignty promised under the agreement when the Jews were able to exercise it. Under Article 80 of the UN Charter, the rights awarded by the San Remo Agreement and the League of Nations Mandate, were preserved in full. For more detail, see: Legal Foundation and Borders of Israel under International Law.[31]

Residency

Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing areas they consider settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, walls, etc.

Following the 1967 war, Israel conducted a census in East Jerusalem and granted permanent Israeli residency to those Arab Jerusalemites present at the time of the census. Those not present lost the right to reside in Jerusalem. Jerusalem Palestinians were permitted to apply for Israeli citizenship, provided they met the requirements for naturalization—such as swearing allegiance to Israel and renouncing all other citizenships—which most of them refused to do. At the end of 2005, 93% of the Arab population of East Jerusalem had permanent residency and 5% had Israeli citizenship.[32]

As residents, East Jerusalemites rejecting Israeli citizenship have the right to vote in municipal elections and play a role in the administration of the city. Residents pay taxes, and following a 1988 Israeli Supreme Court ruling, East Jerusalem residents are guaranteed the right to social security benefits and state health care.

Until 1995, those who lived abroad for more than seven years or obtained residency or citizenship in another country were deemed liable to lose their residency status. In 1995, Israel began revoking permanent residency status from former Arab residents of Jerusalem who could not prove that their "center of life" was still in Jerusalem. This policy was rescinded four years later. In March 2000, the Minister of the Interior, Natan Sharansky, stated that the "quiet deportation" policy would cease, the prior policy would be reverted, and Arab natives to Jerusalem would be able to regain residency[33] if they could prove that they have visited Israel at least once every three years. Since December 1995, permanent residency of more than 3,000 individuals "expired," leaving them with neither citizenship nor residency.[33] Despite changes in policy under Sharansky, in 2006 the number of former Arab Jerusalemites to lose their residency status was 1,363, a sixfold increase on the year before.[34] The loss of status is automatic and sometimes occurs without their knowledge.

According to the Israeli non-governmental organization B'Tselem, since the 1990s, policies that made construction permits harder to obtain for Arab residents have caused a housing shortage that forces many of them to seek housing outside East Jerusalem.[35] Furthermore, East Jerusalem residents that are married to residents of the West Bank and Gaza have had to leave Jerusalem to join their husbands and wives due to the citizenship law. Furthermore, many have had to leave Jerusalem in search of work abroad since, in the aftermath of the Second Intifada East Jerusalem has increasingly been cut off from the West Bank and thereby has lost its main economic hub.[36] Israeli journalist Shahar Ilan argues that this outmigration has led many Palestinians in East Jerusalem to lose their permanent residency status.[37]

According to the American Friends Service Committee and Marshall J. Breger, such restrictions on Palestinian planning and development in East Jerusalem are part of Israel's policy of promoting a Jewish majority in the city.[38][39] On May 13, 2007, the Israeli Cabinet began discussion regarding a proposition to expand Israel's presence in East Jerusalem and boost its economy so as to attract Jewish settlers. To facilitate more Jewish settlement in East Jerusalem, the Cabinet is now considering an approximately 5.75 billion NIS plan to reduce taxes in the area, relocate a range of governmental offices, construct new courthouses, and build a new center for Jerusalem studies.[40] Plans to construct 25,000 Jewish homes in East Jerusalem are in the development stages. As Arab residents are hard-pressed to obtain building permits to develop existing infrastructure or housing in East Jerusalem, this proposition has received much criticism.[41][42]

Israeli-American human rights lawyer Justus Weiner contradicts the claim the distribution of building permits are applied in a discriminatory manner against Arabs, writing that the Jerusalem municipality granted the Arab sector 36,000 building permits, "more than enough to meet the needs of Arab residents through legal construction until 2020". Both Arabs and Jews "typically wait 4-6 weeks for permit approval, enjoy a similar rate of application approvals, and pay an identical fee ($3,600) for water and sewage hook-ups on the same size living unit". Weinser writes that while illegal Jewish construction typically involves additions to existing legal structures, illegal Arab construction involves the construction of entire multi-floor buildings with 4 to 25 living units, built with financial assistance from the Palestinian National Authority on land not legally owned by the builder.[43]

Culture

Jerusalem was designated the Arab Capital of Culture in 2009.[44][45] The festival was organized as a series of events to be held throughout the Arab world.[46] The opening event was scheduled to be held on January 2009, but was delayed until March due to the Gaza War.[46] Israel's Internal Security Minister instructed Israel Police to "suppress any attempts by the PA [Palestinian Authority] to hold events in Jerusalem and throughout the rest of the country."[46] The minister issued the ban on the basis that the events would be a violation of a clause in the interim agreement between Israel and the Palestinians that forbids the PA from organizing events in "Israeli territory".[46]

Mayors of East Jerusalem

  • Anwar Al-Khatib (1948–1950)
  • Aref al-Aref (1950–1951)
  • Hanna Atallah (1951–1952)
  • Omar Wa'ari (1952–1955)
  • Ruhi al-Khatib (1957–1994; titular)
  • Amin al-Majaj (1994–1999; titular)
  • Zaki Al-Ghul (1999–date, titular)[47]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b In the Palestine Liberation Organization's Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000 the Palestinian Authority passed a law designating East Jerusalem as such, and in 2002 this law was ratified by Chairman Arafat. See Arafat Signs Law Making Jerusalem Palestinian Capital, People's Daily, published October 6, 2002; Arafat names Jerusalem as capital, BBC News, published October 6, 2002.
  2. ^ "Basic Law- Jerusalem- Capital of Israel". http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1980_1989/Basic%20Law-%20Jerusalem-%20Capital%20of%20Israel. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  3. ^ Menachem Klein (2001). Jerusalem: the contested city. NYU Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780814747544. http://books.google.com/books?id=tzgUdgVJEekC&pg=PA6-IA1. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  4. ^ Yvonne Schmidt (May 2008). Foundations of Civil and Political Rights in Israel and the Occupied Territories. GRIN Verlag. p. 340. ISBN 9783638944502. http://books.google.com/books?id=oO9i6WDXH6cC&pg=PA340. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Israeli, Raphael. Jerusalem Divided: the armistice regime, 1947-1967, Routledge, 2002, p. 118.
  6. ^ Mike Evans (1997). Jerusalem Betrayed. Thomas Nelson, Inc. http://books.google.com/books?id=RryOQgQdbxoC&pg=PT21&dq=jerusalem+synagogues+destroyed+by+jordan&hl=en&ei=RZx3TsSGC_LG0AGvnfynDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=jerusalem%20synagogues%20destroyed%20by%20jordan&f=false. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  7. ^ Bovis, H. Eugene (1971). The Jerusalem Question, 1917-1968. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 99. ISBN 0-8179-3291-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=1L49R1xKA6QC&pg=PA99&lpg=PA100&dq=%22jerusalem+question+%22&output=html&sig=NuHB0S1nsVZeXI0sidU1hxQu4oE. 
  8. ^ Hirsch, Moshe; Lapidoth, Ruth Eschelbacher (1994). The Jerusalem Question and Its Resolution: Selected Documents. The Hague: M. Nijhoff. pp. 160. ISBN 0-7923-2893-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=e93JIwTBjHgC&pg=PA160&vq=second+capital&dq=%22jerusalem+question+%22&output=html&source=gbs_search_s&cad=5&sig=sUoVgV967SL-Cerm8zVSEsehbgY. 
  9. ^ Martin Gilbert, Jerusalem in the Twentieth Century (Pilmico 1996), p254.
  10. ^ "Israel & the Palestinians: Key Maps". British Broadcasting Corporation. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/1967_and_now.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-28. 
  11. ^ a b c http://web.archive.org/web/19981201090448/http://www.merip.org/joost.htm
  12. ^ The Moroccan Quarter: A History of the Present, Jerusalem Quarterly (Winter 2000/7), Institute of Jerusalem Studies, Appendix I (retrieved March 31, 2010)
  13. ^ http://www.kbj.org.il/images/kotel_p.html
  14. ^ Rory McCarthy (2009-03-07). "Israel annexing East Jerusalem, says EU". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/mar/07/israel-palestine-eu-report-jerusalem. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  15. ^ "THE REALIZATION OF ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS: Written statement submitted by Habitat International Coalition, a non-governmental organization on the Roster". United Nations Economic and Social Council. August 3, 1994. http://unispal.un.org/unispal.nsf/f45643a78fcba719852560f6005987ad/3077feebe5774e3d852563300069223b?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  16. ^ "Jerusalem, Facts and Trends 2009-2010, p. 11" (PDF). Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. http://jiis.org/.upload/facts-2010-eng%20%281%29.pdf. 
  17. ^ "Palestinians grow by a million in decade". The Jerusalem Post/AP. 2008-02-09. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1202246355071&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  18. ^ "Table III/14 - Population of Jerusalem, by Age, Quarter, Sub-Quarter and Statistical Area, 2008" (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem 2009/10. Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies. http://jiis.org/.upload/web%20C1409.pdf. 
  19. ^ Law and Administration Ordinance (Amendment No. 11) Law, 1967 and Law and Administration Order (No. 1) of 28 June 1967.
  20. ^ Ruth Lapidoth. "Jerusalem: The Legal and Political Background". Justice No. 3, Autumn 1994. International Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/Jerusalem-+Legal+and+Political+Background.htm. 
  21. ^ General Assembly Resolution 2253, July 4, 1967
  22. ^ The letter, delivered to the U.N. Secretary General on July 10, stated: "The term 'annexation' is out of place. The measures adopted related to the integration of Jerusalem in the administrative and municipal spheres and furnish a legal basis for the protection of the Holy Places" [1].
  23. ^ Ian Lustick, Has Israel Annexed East Jerusalem? [2]
  24. ^ "On international day of solidarity with Palestinians, Secretary-General heralds Annapolis as new beginning in efforts to achieve two-state solution" (Press release). United Nations, Department of Public Information, News and Media Division. 2007-11-29. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/gapal1069.doc.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-05. 
  25. ^ "The Moratinos' "Non-Paper" on Taba negotiations". 2001-01-27. http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/2ee9468747556b2d85256cf60060d2a6/cea3efd8c0ab482f85256e3700670af8!OpenDocument. 
  26. ^ "S.Con.Res.106 for the 101st Congress". http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c101:S.CON.RES.106:. Retrieved 2007-07-04. 
  27. ^ James Baker's Letter of Assurance to the Palestinians, 18 October 1991
  28. ^ a b c d Stephen Bowen (1997). Human rights, self-determination and political change in the occupied Palestinian territories. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 39–40. ISBN 9789041105028. http://books.google.com/books?id=rXF9zwPL4wIC&pg=PA39. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  29. ^ Lacey, Ian, ed. International Law and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (pdf) – Extracts from Israel and Palestine - Assault on the Law of Nations by Julius Stone, Second Edition with additional material and commentary updated to 2003, AIJAC website. Retrieved June 28, 2007. See also Yehuda Z. Blum, The Juridical status of Jerusalem (Jerusalem, The Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations, 1974); id., "The missing Reversioner: Reflections on the Status of Judea and Samaria", 3 The Israel Law Review (1968), pp. 279–301.
  30. ^ Legal Foundation and Borders of Israel under International Law (Mazo Publishers October 1, 2008), by Howard Grief, accessed 25 August 2010
  31. ^ "Selected Statistics on Jerusalem Day 2007 (Hebrew)". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2007-05-14. http://www.cbs.gov.il/hodaot2007n/11_07_084b.doc. 
  32. ^ a b B'Tselem - Revocation of Residency in East Jerusalem
  33. ^ "A capital question". The Economist. 2007-05-10. http://www.economist.com/world/africa/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9163534. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  34. ^ "East Jerusalem". B'Tselem. http://www.btselem.org/english/Jerusalem. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  35. ^ Movement and access restrictions in the West Bank - Uncertainty and inefficiency in the Palestinian economy - World Bank report (9 May 2007)
  36. ^ Shahar Ilan (2007-06-24). "Interior Min. increasingly revoking E. J'lem Arabs' residency permits". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/874161.html. 
  37. ^ "East Jerusalem and the Politics of Occupation" (PDF). American Friends Service Committee. Winter 2004. http://www.afsc.org/israel-palestine/learn/East-Jerusalem.pdf. 
  38. ^ Marshall J. Breger (March 1997). "Understanding Jerusalem". Middle East Quarterly. Middle East Forum. http://www.meforum.org/article/343. 
  39. ^ "Cabinet discusses measures to financially strengthen Jerusalem". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. May 13, 2007. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Communiques/2007/New+measures+to+strengthen+Jerusalem+13-May-2007.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-13. [dead link]
  40. ^ "New Jerusalem settlement planned". BBC News. May 11, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6645777.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  41. ^ "Israel's Olmert says seeks to expand Jerusalem". May 13, 2007. http://www.reuters.com/article/featuredCrisis/idUSL13437230. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  42. ^ http://www.jcpa.org/jlmbldg.htm
  43. ^ Capitals of Arab Culture - Jerusalem (2009)
  44. ^ Jerusalem: Capital of Arab Culture events jeopardized by occupation
  45. ^ a b c d Israel bans Palestinian cultural events. Ynet News, 2009-03-20.
  46. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-20515295.html

References

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