- Isoamyl acetate
Name = Isoamyl acetate
ImageFile = Isoamyl_acetate.png
ImageName = Isoamyl acetate
ImageFile2 = Isoamyl-acetate-3D-balls.png
IUPACName = 3-methyl-1-butyl acetate
OtherNames = isopentyl acetate
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 123-92-2
SMILES = CC(C)CCOC(C)=O
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = C7H14O2
MolarMass = 130.19 g/mol
Density = 0.876 g/cm3
MeltingPt = -78 °C
BoilingPt = 142 °C
Section7 = Chembox Hazards
NFPA-H = 1
NFPA-F = 3
NFPA-R = 0
FlashPt = 25 °C Isoamyl acetate, also known as isopentyl acetate, is an
organic compoundthat is the esterformed from isoamyl alcoholand acetic acid. It is a clear colorless liquid that is only slightly soluble in water, but very soluble in most organic solvents.
Isoamyl acetate has a strong odor (similar to juicy fruit) which is also described as similar to both
bananaand pear. Banana oil is a term that is applied either to pure isoamyl acetate or to flavorings that are mixtures of isoamyl acetate, amyl acetate, nitrocelluloseand other flavors. "Pear oil" commonly refers to a solution of isoamyl acetate in ethanolthat is used as an artificial flavor.
Isoamyl acetate is also used to test the effectiveness of
respirators or gas masks because it has a strong smell which is generally not experienced as unpleasant that can be detected at low concentrations, and has low toxicity.
It is also used as a solvent for some varnishes and nitrocellulose lacquers, as well as being a honey bee
pheromoneand can be used to attract large groups of honeybees to a small area.
Isoamyl acetate is released by a
honey bee's sting apparatus where it serves as a pheromone beacon to attract other bees and provoke them to sting. [cite journal | author = Boch R | coauthors = Shearer DA, Stone BC | date = September 8, 1962| title = Identification of isoamyl acetate as an active component in the sting pheromone of the honey bee. | journal = Nature | volume = 195 | pages = 1018-20 | publisher = Nature Publishing Group | location = England | issn = 0028-0836 | pmid = 13870346 ]
Isoamyl acetate can be prepared in the laboratory by the acid catalyzed
Fischer esterificationreaction between isoamyl alcoholand glacial acetic acidas shown in the reaction equation below. Typically, concentrated sulfuric acidis used as the catalyst. The reactants are refluxedin order to promote the reaction, the acid is neutralized and extracted, and the product is dried, then distilled.
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