- Maritime patrol aircraft
A maritime patrol aircraft (MPA), also known as a patrol aircraft, maritime reconnaissance aircraft, or by the older American term patrol bomber, is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles - in particular anti-submarine, anti-ship and search and rescue.
- World War I and World War II era
The first aircraft that would now be identified as patrol bombers were flown by the Royal Naval Air Service during World War I, primarily on anti-submarine patrols. At first blimps were the only aircraft capable of staying aloft for the long periods of time (as much as 10 hours) needed by the patrols whilst carrying a useful payload. Shorter-range patrols were mounted by adapted bombers such as the Sopwith 1½ Strutter. Later in the war aeroplanes were developed specifically for the role. These were usually large floatplanes such as the Short 184 or flying boats such as the Felixstowe F.2.
Many of the World War II patrol aircraft were converted from long-range bombers or airliners (such as Germany's Focke-Wulf Fw 200 "Condor"). To cover the Mid-Atlantic Gap that existed the British introduced a "Very Long Range" version of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber which was capable of patrolling the areas between Iceland and Greenland and attack German submarines. Purpose-designed aircraft were also used, including the American Consolidated PBY Catalina.
- Post World War II
After World War II the patrol role was generally taken over by conversions of civilian airliners that had range and performance better than most wartime bombers.[nb 1]The latest jet-powered bombers of the 1950s did not have the endurance needed for long, over-water cruising, and more importantly did not have the low loitering speed necessary for anti-submarine operations. The main threat to NATO powers throughout the 1960s and into the 1980s were Soviet submarines, which were located primarily with the use of sonobuoys, and which then could be attacked with homing torpedoes.
Since the end of the Cold War the threat of a large-scale submarine attack is remote, and many forces are downsizing their patrol aircraft fleets. Those still in service are used primarily for counter-smuggling and Exclusive Economic Zone enforcement duties.
Armament and countermeasures
The earliest patrol aircraft carried bombs and machine guns. Between the wars the British experimented with equipping their patrol aircraft with the COW 37 mm gun. During the Second World War depth charges that could be successfully dropped replaced "anti-submarine" bombs.
Patrol aircraft also carried defensive armament which was necessary when patrolling areas close to enemy territory such as Allied operations in the Bay of Biscay targeting U-boats starting out from their base.
As a result of Allied successes with patrol aircraft against U-boats, the Germans introduced U-flak (submarines equipped with more anti-aircraft weaponry) to escort U-boats out of base and encouraged commanders to remain on the surface and fire back at attacking craft rather than trying to escape by diving. Equipping submarines with radar warning equipment and the snorkel made them harder to be found.
To counter the German long range patrol aircraft which targeted merchant convoys the British introduced the CAM ship which was a merchant vessel equipped with a single fighter aircraft which could be launched once to engage the enemy aircraft.
Maritime patrol aircraft are typically fitted with a wide range of sensors:
- Radar to detect surface shipping movements;
- Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) to detect submarines. The MAD detecting head is typically mounted on an extension from the tail to minimize interference from the rest of the aircraft;
- Sonobuoy dropped from the aircraft into the sea to detect submarines, transmitting the data back to the aircraft for analysis;
- ELINT sensors to monitor civilian and military telecommunications;
- Infrared camera are also useful in monitoring shipping movements.
A modern military maritime patrol aircraft typically carries a dozen or so crew members, including relief flight crews, to effectively operate the equipment for up to 12 hours at a time.
Examples of maritime patrol aircraft
- World War II era
- Consolidated PBY Catalina (USA)
- Consolidated PB2Y Coronado (USA)
- Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer (USA)
- Dornier Do 24 (Netherlands, Germany)
- Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor (Germany)
- Junkers Ju 290 (Germany)
- Kawanishi H6K Mavis (Japan)
- Kawanishi H8K Emily (Japan)
- Lockheed Ventura (USA)
- Martin PBM Mariner (USA)
- Short Sunderland (UK)
Shorter ranged aircraft such as the Lockheed Hudson with a range of 1,700 nm were used in "coastal reconnaisance".
- Post World War II
- Airbus A319 MPA (France)
- ATR 42 MP Surveyor (France)
- ATR 72 ASW (France)
- Avro Shackleton - UK, 1951–1984)
- Beriev Be-10 (USSR)
- Beriev Be-12 (USSR)
- Beriev Be-200 (Russia)
- Boeing P-8 Poseidon (USA)
- Bombardier Dash 8 DHC-8-300 MSA and DHC-8 MPA-D8 (Canada)
- Breguet Br 1150 Atlantic - France, 1961-
- CASA C212 MPA (Spain)
- CASA CN235 MPA (Spain)
- CASA C295 MPA (Spain)
- Canadair CP-107 Argus - Canada, 1957–1982
- Dassault Falcon 20G (France)
- Dassault Falcon 50 Surmar (France)
- Dassault Falcon 900 MPA (France)
- Fokker F27 Maritime (Netherlands)
- Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod - UK, 1970 to 2010
- Ilyushin Il-38 (USSR)
- Lockheed P-2 Neptune (USA)
- Lockheed P-3 Orion (USA)
- see also Lockheed CP-140 Aurora and CP-140A Arcturus (CAN)
- Martin P5M Marlin (USA)
- PZL M28B Bryza 1R, 1RMbis, 1E (Poland)
- Tupolev Tu-142 (USSR)
- HESA IrAn-140 (Iran)
Small (often carrier-based) ASW or anti-ship aircraft are not normally considered to be MPAs. These include Kyushu Q1W, SB2U Vindicator, Breguet Alizé, Fairey Gannet, Grumman AF Guardian, Grumman S-2 Tracker and Lockheed S-3 Viking.
Military aircraft types by roles Military aircraft roles Military aircraft types
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Maritime Patrol Aircraft — British Aerospace Nimrod MR2 Antonow An 12 Cub Seeaufklärer (engl. Maritime Patrol Aircraft, MPA) sind Flugzeuge, die auf Patroullienflügen über dem Meer lange im Einsatz verbleiben und ein großes Gebiet … Deutsch Wikipedia
Maritime patrol — is the task of monitoring areas of water. Generally conducted by military and law enforcement agencies, maritime patrol is usually aimed at identifying human activities. Maritime patrol refers to active patrol of an area, as opposed to passive… … Wikipedia
Maritime Patrol Group RAAF — Infobox Military Unit unit name=Maritime Patrol Group branch=RAAF command structure= garrison= role= dates=1987 ndash;2004 motto= commander1= identification symbol= identification symbol label=Callsign equipment= equipment label=AircraftThe… … Wikipedia
404 Maritime Patrol and Training Squadron — No. 404 Squadron RCAF Four No. 404 Squadron Beaufighters in mid February 1945 Active 1941–1945, 1951–current Country … Wikipedia
405 Maritime Patrol Squadron — Active April 1941–September 1945 April 1947–present Country Canada Branch … Wikipedia
Maritime law enforcement agencies in the People's Republic of China — The People s Republic of China (PRC) operates several separate maritime law enforcement agencies. These services operate ships as well as their own small aviation units to assist their maritime patrol capabilities. Contents 1 Services 1.1 Coast… … Wikipedia
maritime aircraft — One designed to operate over the sea. Some of the types of maritime aircraft are the maritime patrol, maritime strike, and antisubmarine aircraft … Aviation dictionary
Maritime history of California — History of California This article is part of a series Timeline … Wikipedia
Maritime history of the United Kingdom — The Maritime history of the United Kingdom involves events including shipping, ports, navigation, and seamen, as well as marine sciences, exploration, trade, and maritime themes in the arts from the creation of the kingdom of Great Britain as… … Wikipedia
Maritime history — The Clipper Ship Flying Cloud off the Needles, Isle of Wight, off the southern English coast. Painting by James E. Buttersworth Maritime history is the study of human activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history that often uses… … Wikipedia