- Robert Lowell
name = Robert Traill Spence Lowell IV
birthdate = March 1, 1917
deathdate = September 12, 1977
New York City, New York
nationality = American
genre = Confessionalism
Jean Stafford(1940-1948) Elizabeth Hardwick(1949-1970) Caroline Blackwood(1970-1977)
Amy Lowell, James Russell Lowell
Elizabeth Bishop, John Crowe Ransom, Hart Crane, Allen Tate
Elizabeth Bishop, Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, Maxine Kumin
Robert Lowell (March 1, 1917–September 12, 1977), born Robert Traill Spence Lowell, IV, was an American
poetwhose works, confessional in nature, engaged with the questions of historyand probed the dark recesses of the self. He is generally considered to be among the greatest American poets of the twentieth century.
He was born in
Boston, Massachusettsto a Boston Brahminfamily that included the poets Amy Lowelland James Russell Lowell. His mother, Charlotte Winslow, was a direct descendant of William Samuel Johnson, a signer of the United States Constitution, Jonathan Edwards, the famed philosopher, Anne Hutchinson, the Puritan preacher and healer, Robert Livingston the Elder, Thomas Dudley, the second governor of Massachusetts, and " Mayflower" passengers James Chiltonand his daughter Mary Chilton. He was at St. Mark's School, a prominent prep-school in Southborough, Mass, before attending Harvard Collegefor two years and transferring to Kenyon Collegein Gambier, Ohio, to study under John Crowe Ransom. [http://harvardsquarelibrary.org/poets/r_lowell.php Robert Lowell] Poets of Cambridge, USA] He converted from Episcopalianism to Catholicism, [http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/10 Robert Lowell @ Poets.org] ] which influenced his first two books, "Land of Unlikeness" (1944) and the Pulitzer Prize winning "Lord Weary's Castle" (1946). In 1950, Lowell was included in the influential anthology "Mid-Century American Poets" as one of the key literary figures of his generation. Among his contemporaries who also appeared in that book were Muriel Rukeyser, Karl Shapiro, Elizabeth Bishop, Theodore Roethke, Randall Jarrell, and John Ciardi, all poets who came into prominence in the 1940s.
Lowell was a
conscientious objectorduring World War IIand served several months at the federal prison in Danbury, Connecticut. During the 1960s he was active in the civil rights movement and opposed the US involvement in Vietnam. His participation in the October 1967 peace march in Washington, DC, and his subsequent arrest are described in the early sections of Norman Mailer's "The Armies of the Night".
Lowell suffered with
alcoholismand manic depressionand was hospitalized many times throughout his life. He was married to novelist Jean Staffordfrom 1940 to 1948. In 1949 he married the writer Elizabeth Hardwick. In 1970 he left Elizabeth Hardwick for the British author Lady Caroline Blackwood. He spent many of his last years in England. Lowell died in 1977, having suffered a heart attack in a cab in New York City on his way to see Elizabeth Hardwick. He is buried in Stark Cemetery, Dunbarton, New Hampshire.
Lowell's collected poems were published in 2003 and his letters in 2005, leading to a renewed interest in his work.
He reached wide acclaim for his 1946 book, "Lord Weary's Castle", which included ten poems slightly revised from his earlier "Land of Unlikeness", and thirty new poems. Among the better known poems in the volume are "Mr Edwards and the Spider" and "
The Quaker Graveyard in Nantucket." "Lord Weary's Castle" was awarded the Pulitzer Prizein 1947. Lowell's early poems are formal, ornate, and concerned with violence and theology; a typical example is the close of "The Quaker Graveyard" -- "You could cut the brackish winds with a knife / Here in Nantucket and cast up the time / When the Lord God formed man from the sea's slime / And breathed into his face the breath of life, / And the blue-lung'd combers lumbered to the kill. / The Lord survives the rainbow of His will."
"The Mills of the Kavanaughs" (1951) did not receive similar acclaim, but Lowell was able to revive his reputation with "
Life Studies" (1959). The poems in this book were written in a mix of free and metered verse, with much more informal language than he used in his first two books. It marked both a big turning point in Lowell's career, and a turning point for American poetryin general. Because many of the poems documented details from Lowell's family life and personal problems, one critic, M.L. Rosenthal, labeled the book "confessional." For better or worse, this label stuck. Lowell's editor and friend Frank Bidartnotes in his afterword to Lowell's "Collected Poems," "Lowell is widely, perhaps indelibly associated with the term 'confessional,'" though Bidart questions the accuracy of this label. [ Bidart, Frank, editor. "On Confessional Poetry." "Robert Lowell Collected Poems". New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2003.]
Lowell followed "Life Studies" with "Imitations", a volume of loose translations of poems by classical and modern European poets, including
Rilke, Montale, Baudelaire, Pasternak, and Rimbaud, for which he received the 1962 Bollingen Poetry Translation Prize.
His next book "For the Union Dead", 1964, was also widely praised, particularly for its title poem, which invokes
Allen Tate's "Ode to the Confederate Dead." In "Near the Ocean", which followed a couple of years later, Lowell had returned to stanzaic forms. The best known poem in this volume, "Waking Early Sunday Morning," is written in eight-line stanzas borrowed from Andrew Marvell's poem "Upon Appleton House."
During 1967 and 1968 he experimented with a verse journal, published as "Notebook, 1967-68". These fourteen-line poems loosely based on the
sonnetform were reworked into three volumes. "History" deals with public history from antiquity onwards, and with modern poets Lowell had known; "For Lizzie and Harriet" describes the breakdown of his second marriage; and "The Dolphin", which won the 1974 Pulitzer Prize, includes poems about his marriage to Caroline Blackwoodand their life in England.
A minor controversy erupted when he incorporated private letters from his second wife,
Elizabeth Hardwickinto "For Lizzie and Harriet". He was particularly criticized for this by his friends Adrienne Richand Elizabeth Bishop.
*"Land of Unlikeness" (1944)
Lord Weary's Castle" (1946)
The Mills of The Kavanaughs" (1951)
Life Studies" (1959)
*"Phaedra (translation)" (1961)
*"For the Union Dead" (1964)
*"The Old Glory" (1965)
*"Near the Ocean" (1967)
*"The Voyage & other versions of poems of Baudelaire" (1969)
Prometheus Bound" (1969)
*"Notebook" (1969) (Revised and Expanded Edition, 1970)
*"For Lizzie and Harriet" (1973)
*"The Dolphin" (1973)
*"Selected Poems" (1976) (Revised Edition, 1977)
*"Day by Day" (1977)
*"The Oresteia of Aeschylus" (1978)
*"Collected Poems" (2003)
*"Selected Poems" (2006) (Expanded Edition)
* [http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/lowell/lowell.htm Articles on Lowell at Modern American Poetry]
* [http://wiredforbooks.org/ianhamilton/ 1982 Audio Interview with Ian Hamilton, author of the biography, Robert Lowell - RealAudio]
* [http://www.theparisreview.org/viewinterview.php/prmMID/4664 Lowell's interview with The Paris Review]
* [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_n42_v10/ai_16171135 Lost Puritan: A Life of Robert Lowell]
* [http://www.literaryhistory.com/20thC/Lowell.htm Literary Criticism on Robert Lowell]
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Robert Lowell — Robert Traill Spence Lowell (* 1. März 1917 in Boston, Massachusetts; † 12. September 1977 in New York City) war ein US amerikanischer Dichter. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Bedeutung 3 Werke … Deutsch Wikipedia
Robert Lowell — Activités poète, Écrivain Naissance 1er mars 1917 Décès 12 septembre 1977 (à 60 ans) Mouvement confessionnalisme … Wikipédia en Français
Robert Lowell — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Robert Lowell (Boston, 1 de marzo de 1917 – Nueva York, 12 de septiembre de 1977) fue un poeta estadounidense. Trayectoria Estudió en la Universidad de Harvard y fue transferido al Colegio Kenyon en Gambier, Ohio,… … Wikipedia Español
Robert Lowell — (Robert Trail Spence Lowell Jr) (1 de marzo, 1917–12 de septiembre, 1977), fue un poeta Confesionalista Estadounidense conocido por inspirar y educar algunas superestrellas literarias de las décadas de 1950 y 1960, incluyendo a Anne Sexton y… … Enciclopedia Universal
Robert Lowell — noun United States poet (1917 1977) • Syn: ↑Lowell, ↑Robert Traill Spence Lowell Jr. • Instance Hypernyms: ↑poet * * * Robert Lowell [Robert Lowell … Useful english dictionary
Robert Lowell — ➡ Lowell * * * … Universalium
Lowell — may refer to:Places;In the United States: * Lowell, Arkansas * Lowell, Florida * Lowell, Indiana * Lowell, Bartholomew County, Indiana * Lowell, Maine * Lowell, Massachusetts **Lowell National Historical Park * Lowell, Michigan * Lowell, North… … Wikipedia
Lowell — puede referirse a: Contenido 1 Lugares 2 Personas 2.1 Como un apellido 2.2 Como un nombre propio … Wikipedia Español
LOWELL (R.) — LOWELL ROBERT (1917 1977) C’est dans le long passage en prose «91 Revere Street» qui fait partie du recueil Life Studies (1959) que le poète américain Robert Lowell retrace sans détours son histoire personnelle et se présente sans complaisance:… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Lowell — ist der Name mehrerer Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Lowell (Arizona) Lowell (Arkansas) Lowell (Florida) Lowell (Georgia) Lowell (Idaho) Lowell (Illinois) Lowell (Indiana) Lowell (Iowa) Lowell (Kalifornien) Lowell (Kansas) Lowell (Kentucky)… … Deutsch Wikipedia