Coriander


Coriander
"Chinese parsley" redirects here. This can also refer to the unrelated Heliotropium curassavicum.
Coriander
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Coriandrum
Species: C. sativum
Binomial name
Coriandrum sativum
L.
Coriander leaves, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 95 kJ (23 kcal)
Carbohydrates 4 g
- Dietary fiber 3 g
Fat 0.5 g
Protein 2 g
Vitamin A equiv. 337 μg (42%)
Vitamin C 27 mg (33%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 centimetres (20 in) tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, with the petals pointing away from the center of the umbel longer (5–6 mm) than those pointing towards it (only 1–3 mm long). The fruit is a globular dry schizocarp 3–5 mm diameter. In American culinary usage, the fruits ("seeds") are generally referred to as coriander, the leaves as cilantro.

Contents

Etymology

First attested in English late 14th century, the word coriander derives from the Old French "coriandre", which comes from Latin coriandrum,[1] in turn from Greek κορίαννον (koriannon).[2][3] The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ko-ri-ja-da-na[4] (written in Linear B syllabic script, reconstructed as koriadnon), similar to the name of Minos' daughter Ariadne, and it is plain how this might later evolve to koriannon or koriandron.[5]

Uses

All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves (cilantro) and the dried seeds are the parts most commonly used in cooking. Coriander is common in South Asian, Middle Eastern, Central Asian, Mediterranean, Indian, Texan, Latin American, Portuguese, Chinese, African, and Scandinavian cuisine.

Leaves

The leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, cilantro (in America, from the Spanish name for the plant).

Fresh coriander leaves, also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro

It should not be confused with Culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.) which is a close relative to coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) but has a distinctly different appearance, a much more potent volatile leaf oil[6] and a stronger smell.

The leaves have a different taste from the seeds, with citrus overtones. Some perceive an unpleasant "soapy" taste or a rank smell and avoid the leaves.[7] The flavours have also been compared to those of the stink bug, and similar chemical groups are involved (aldehydes). Belief that aversion is genetically determined may arise from the known genetic variation in taste perception of the synthetic chemical phenylthiocarbamide; however, no specific link has been established between coriander and a bitter taste perception gene.

The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian foods such as chutneys and salads), in Chinese dishes, in Mexican cooking, particularly in salsa and guacamole and as a garnish, and in salads in Russia and other CIS countries. Chopped coriander leaves are a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal. As heat diminishes their flavor, coriander leaves are often used raw or added to the dish immediately before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavor diminishes.[8] The leaves spoil quickly when removed from the plant, and lose their aroma when dried or frozen.

Fruit

Dried coriander fruits

The dry fruits are known as coriander or coriandi seeds. In India they are called dhania.[9] The word coriander in food preparation may refer solely to these seeds (as a spice), rather than to the plant itself. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes linalool and pinene. It is described as warm, nutty, spicy, and orange-flavored.

The variety vulgare or macrocarpum has a fruit diameter of 3–5 mm while var. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of 1.5–3 mm. Large fruited types are grown mainly by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco, India and Australia and contain a low volatile oil content (0.1-0.4%). They are used extensively for grinding and blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and usually have a volatile oil content of around 0.4-1.8%, and are therefore highly valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.[10]

It is commonly found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Seeds can be roasted or heated on a dry pan briefly before grinding to enhance and alter the aroma. Ground coriander seed loses flavor quickly in storage and is best ground fresh.

Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries, which often employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin. It acts as a thickener. Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack. It is the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes: sambhar and rasam. Coriander seeds are boiled with water and drunk as indigenous medicine for colds.

Flowers of Coriandrum sativum

Outside of Asia, coriander seed is used for pickling vegetables, and making sausages in Germany and South Africa (see boerewors). In Russia and Central Europe coriander seed is an occasional ingredient in rye bread as an alternative to caraway. Coriander seeds are used in European cuisine today, though they were more important in former centuries.[citation needed]

Coriander seeds are used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers.[11] The coriander seeds are used with orange peel to add a citrus character.

Roots

Coriander roots

Coriander roots have a deeper, more intense flavor than the leaves. They are used in a variety of Asian cuisines. They are commonly used in Thai dishes, including soups and curry pastes.

History

Coriander grows wild over a wide area of the Near East and southern Europe, prompting the comment, "It is hard to define exactly where this plant is wild and where it only recently established itself."[12] Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemel Cave in Israel, which may be the oldest archeological find of coriander. About half a litre of coriander mericarps were recovered from the tomb of Tutankhamen, and because this plant does not grow wild in Egypt, Zohary and Hopf interpret this find as proof that coriander was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians.[12] The Bible mentions coriander in Exodus 16:31: "And the house of Israel began to call its name Manna: and it was round like coriander seed, and its taste was like that of flat cakes made with honey."

Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC. One of the Linear B tablets recovered from Pylos refers to the species as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes, and it appears that it was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavor of its leaves.[5] This appears to be confirmed by archaeological evidence from the same period: the large quantities of the species retrieved from an Early Bronze Age layer at Sitagroi in Macedonia could point to cultivation of the species at that time.[13]

Coriander was brought to the British colonies in North America in 1670 and was one of the first spices cultivated by early settlers.[citation needed]

Similar plants

These herbs are used where they grow in much the same way as coriander is used.

  • Eryngium foetidum has a similar taste and is also known as culantro. Found in South America.[14]
  • Persicaria odorata is commonly called Vietnamese coriander, or rau răm. The leaves have a similar odour and flavour to coriander. It is a member of the Polygonaceae, or Buckwheat Family.[14]
  • Papaloquelite is one common name for Porophyllum ruderale subsp. macrocephalum, a member of the Compositae or Asteraceae, the Sunflower Family. This species is found growing wild from Texas to Argentina.[14]

Health effects and medicinal uses

Coriander, like many spices, contains antioxidants, which can delay or prevent the spoilage of food seasoned with this spice. A study found both the leaves and seed to contain antioxidants, but the leaves were found to have a stronger effect.[15]

Chemicals derived from coriander leaves were found to have antibacterial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis, and this activity was found to be caused in part by these chemicals acting as nonionic surfactants.[16]

Coriander has been used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iran. Experiments in mice support its use as an anxiolytic.[17] Coriander seeds are used in traditional Indian medicine as a diuretic by boiling equal amounts of coriander seeds and cumin seeds, then cooling and consuming the resulting liquid.[18] In holistic and traditional medicine, it is used as a carminative and as a digestive aid.[19][20]

Coriander has been documented as a traditional treatment for diabetes. A study on mice found that coriander extract had both insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity.[21]

Coriander seeds were found in a study on rats to have a significant hypolipidemic effect, resulting in lowering of levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein. This effect appeared to be caused by increasing synthesis of bile by the liver and increasing the breakdown of cholesterol into other compounds.[22]

Coriander juice (mixed with turmeric powder or mint juice) is used as a treatment for acne, applied to the face in the manner of toner.[citation needed]

Coriander leaves (Cilantro) contain aldehydes, which are also found in soaps and lotions, leading some to complain of a mild to highly irritating soapy flavor. There appears to be a genetic component to the detection of "soapy" versus "herby" tastes.[23]

Coriander can produce an allergic reaction in some people.[24][25]

References

  1. ^ coriandrum, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus
  2. ^ κορίαννον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  3. ^ "Coriander", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1989. Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages
  5. ^ a b John Chadwick, The Mycenaean World (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), p. 119
  6. ^ [1] Ramcharan, C. 1999. Culantro: A much utilized, little understood herb. p. 506–509. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
  7. ^ [2] Across the Land, People Are Fuming Over an Herb (No, Not That One) Cilantro Haters Boo 'Fetid Barb of Green'; A Prominent Critic Recants by By Sarah Rubenstein
  8. ^ [3] uni-graz.at
  9. ^ "dhania". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  10. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20040404072132/http://www.crop.cri.nz/psp/broadshe/coriand.htm.
  11. ^ [4] Wheat Beers
  12. ^ a b Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 205-206
  13. ^ Fragiska, M. (2005). "Wild and Cultivated Vegetables, Herbs and Spices in Greek Antiquity". Environmental Archaeology 10 (1): 73–82. 
  14. ^ a b c Tucker, A.O. & T. DeBaggio. 1992. Cilantro Around The World. The Herb Conpanion. Ap.-May. pgs 36-41.
  15. ^ Helle Wangensteen, Anne Berit Samuelsen, Karl Egil Malterud, "Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander", Food Chemistry, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 293-297, Nov. 2004.
  16. ^ Isao Kubo et. al., "Antibacterial Activity of Coriander Volatile Compounds against Salmonella choleraesuis", J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52 (11), pp 3329–3332
  17. ^ Emamghoreishi M, Khasaki M, Aazam MF (2005). "Coriandrum sativum: evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96 (3): 365–370. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.06.022. PMID 15619553. 
  18. ^ Dawakhana, H (2007). "Coriander: Cure from the Kitchen". hashmi.com. http://www.hashmi.com/coriander.html. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  19. ^ "Coriander". PDRHealth. Archived from the original on 2007-06-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20070601175355/http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/100860.shtml. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  20. ^ "Herbs for the Prairies:Coriander". Saskatchewan Herb and Spice Association. Archived from the original on 2007-08-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20070818114016/http://paridss.usask.ca/specialcrop/commodity/herb_spice/tour/coriander.html. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  21. ^ Alison M. Gray, Peter R. Flat, "Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of the traditional anti-diabetic plant Coriandrum sativum (coriander)", British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 81, pp. 203-209, (1999)
  22. ^ V. Chithra and S. Leelamma, "Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action", Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum), Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 167-172, June, 1997.
  23. ^ "Cilantro Haters, It’s Not Your Fault", New York Times, April 14, 2010
  24. ^ EboO DG , Bridts Ch, Mertens MH, Stevens WJ (16 April 2006). "Coriander anaphylaxis in A spice grinder with undetected occupational allergy". Acta Clinica Belgica 61 (3): 152–156. PMID 16881566. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17926832. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  25. ^ Suhonen, Raimo et al.; Keskinen, H; Björkstén, F; Vaheri, E; Zitting, A (1979). "Allergy to Coriander A Case Report". Allergy 34 (5): 327–330. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.1979.tb04374.x. PMID 546248. 

Further reading

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • CORIANDER — CORIANDER, plant called gad in the Bible and kusbar in the Mishnah and the Targum Pseudo Jonathan. The manna is described as being like coriander seed, white (Ex. 16:31), and like coriander seed, and in color it was like bdellium (Num. 11:7).… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Coriander — Co ri*an der (k? r? ?n d?r), n. [L. coriandrum, fr. Gr. ????, ????, perh. fr. ??? bug, on account of the buglike or fetid smell of its leaves: cf. F. coriandre.] (Bot.) An umbelliferous plant, the {Coriandrum sativum}, the fruit or seeds of which …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Coriander — Coriander, 1) s. u. Coriandrum; 2) Schwarzer C., so v. w. Schwarzkümmel …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Coriander — Coriander, S. Koriander …   Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart

  • coriander — late 14c., from O.Fr. coriandre (14c.), from L. coriandrum, from Gk. koriannon, apparently a non I.E. word …   Etymology dictionary

  • coriander — ► NOUN ▪ an aromatic Mediterranean plant of the parsley family, the leaves and seeds of which are used in cookery. ORIGIN Old French coriandre, from Greek koriannon …   English terms dictionary

  • coriander — [kôr′ē an΄dər, kôr΄ē an′dər] n. [ME & OFr coriandre < L coriandrum < Gr koriandron, koriannon] 1. a European annual herb (Coriandrum sativum) of the umbel family 2. its strong smelling, seedlike fruit, used in flavoring food and liqueurs,… …   English World dictionary

  • coriander — The dried ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum (family Umbelliferae); a mild stimulant aromatic and a flavoring agent. * * * co·ri·an·der kōr ē .an dər, .kōr ē , kȯr , .kȯr n 1) an Old World herb (Coriandrum sativum) of the carrot family… …   Medical dictionary

  • coriander — noun Etymology: Middle English coriandre, from Anglo French, from Latin coriandrum, from Greek koriandron, koriannon Date: 14th century 1. an Old World annual herb (Coriandrum sativum) of the carrot family with aromatic fruits 2. the ripened… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • coriander — /kawr ee an deuhr, kohr /, n. an herb, Coriandrum sativum, of the parsley family, native to Europe, having strong scented leaves used in cooking and aromatic seeds used as a seasoning and in medicine. Also called Chinese parsley, cilantro. [1350… …   Universalium


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