- Haplogroup L (Y-DNA)
origin-date =30,000 years BP
Iranor southern Central Asia
human genetics, Haplogroup L (M20) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
This haplogroup is associated with
South Asia. It has also been found at low frequencies among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, Northern Africa, and Southern Europealong the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup K, and is believed to have first appeared approximately 30,000 years ago.
Haplogroup L is currently present in the Indian population at an overall frequency of ca. 7-15% (Basu "et al." 2003, Cordaux "et al." 2004, Sengupta "et al." 2006, Thamseem "et al." 2006). It is especially frequent among Dravidian upper and middle castes (ca. 17-19%)fact|date=February 2008, but is somewhat rarer in
Indo-Aryanupper and middle castes (ca. 5-6%)fact|date=February 2008. Its highest frequency and diversity can be found in western Pakistan/ Balochistan(28%). The presence of haplogroup L is quite rare among tribal groups (ca. 5,6-7%) (Cordaux "et al." 2004, Sengupta "et al." 2006, Thamseem "et al." 2006), which indicates that it was not a Y-haplogroup of the original Paleolithic population of India.
Haplogroup L and
Druze: According to DNA testing, Druzeare remarkable for their high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L (M295), which is present in only about 6.4% of the general Arabpopulation of the Middle East. [ [http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Shen2004.pdf Shen et al., 2004] ]
Haplogroup L is also relatively common in
Iran(4/117 or 3.4% L1-M76 and 3/117 or 2.6% L2-M317 for a total of 7/117 or 6.0% haplogroup L in southern Iran and 1/33 or 3.0% L3-M357 in northern Iran (Regueiro et al. 2006)) and Turkey(22/523 or 4.2% haplogroup L (Cinnioğlu et al. 2004)).
Early reports (e.g. Wells et al. 2001) of a very high frequency (approaching 50%) of Haplogroup L in South India appear to have been due to extrapolation from data obtained from a sample of 84 Kallars, a Tamil-speaking warrior caste of
Tamil Nadu, among whom 40 (approx. 48%) displayed the M20 mutation that defines Haplogroup L. Subsequent studies of various Indian populations have shown this high frequency of Haplogroup L among the Kallars to be an anomaly in the region; Haplogroup L Y-chromosomes rarely comprise even 25% of the Y-chromosome diversity among any Indian population.
Sengupta "et al." (2006) recently discovered three subbranches of haplogroup L: L1 (M76), L2 (M317), and L3 (M357). All three are present in Iran and Pakistan, but only L1 is regularly found in India. They make a case for an indigenous origin of L1 in India, by arguing that the spatial distributions of both L1 HG frequency and associated microsatellite variance show a pattern of spread emanating from southern India. By linking haplogroup L1 to the Dravidian speakers, they simultaneously argue for an Indian origin of Dravidian languages. Unfortunately, there seems to be little interest in the origin and distribution of this haplogroup outside India.
An article by O. Semino "et al." published in the journal "Science" (Volume 290,
10 November 2000) reported the detection of the M11-G mutation, which is one of the mutations that defines Haplogroup L, in approximately 1% to 3% of samples from Lebanon, Turkey, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Calabria, and Andalusia. The sizes of the samples analyzed in this study were generally quite small, so it is possible that the actual frequency of Haplogroup L among Mediterranean European populations may be slightly lower or higher than that reported by Semino "et al.", but there seems to be no study to date that has described more precisely the distribution of Haplogroup L in Southwest Asia and Europe. Preliminary evidence gleaned from non-scientific sources, such as [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-Haplogroup-L/ individuals who have had their Y-chromosomes tested by commercial labs] , suggests that most European examples of Haplogroup L might belong to the subcladeL2 (M317), which is, among South Asian populations, generally the rarest of the subclades of Haplogroup L.
subclades of Haplogroup L with their defining mutation(s), according to [http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html the 2006 ISOGG tree] :
*L (M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295) "Typical of populations of
**L1 (M27, M76) "Typical of Dravidian castes of
Indiaand Sri Lanka, with a moderate distribution among Indo-Iranianpopulations of South Asia"
**L2 (M317) "Found at low frequency in
Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe"
**L3 (M357) "Found frequently among
Burushoand Pashtuns, with a moderate distribution among the general Pakistani population"
***L3a (PK3) "Found among
*A. Basu "et al.": Ethnic India: A Genomic View, With Special Reference to Peopling and Structure. Genome research, 2003, http://www.genome.org/cgi/doi/10.1101/gr.1413403.
*R. Cordaux "et al.": Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages. Current Biology, 2004, Vol. 14, p. 231–235
*C. Cinnioğlu et al., "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia," Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 127–148, http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf
*R. Qamar "et al.": Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan. American Journal of Human Genetics, 2002, p. 1107-1124
*M. Regueiro "et al.": "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration," "Human Heredity", 2006, vol. 61, pp. 132–43.
*S. Sahoo "et al.": A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios. PNAS 2006, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0507714103
*S. Sengupta "et al.": Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. American Journal of Human Genetics, 2006, p. 202-221
*I. Thamseem "et al.": Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: Inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. BMC Genetics, 2006, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/7/42
*Sadaf Firasat, Shagufta Khaliq, Aisha Mohyuddin, Myrto Papaioannou, Chris Tyler-Smith, Peter A Underhill and Qasim Ayub: Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan. "European Journal of Human Genetics" (2007) Vol. 15, p. 121–126. http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n1/full/5201726a.html
*R. Spencer Wells, Nadira Yuldasheva, Ruslan Ruzibakiev, Peter A. Underhill, Irina Evseeva, Jason Blue-Smith, Li Jin, Bing Su, Ramasamy Pitchappan, Sadagopal Shanmugalakshmi, Karuppiah Balakrishnan, Mark Read, Nathaniel M. Pearson, Tatiana Zerjal, Matthew T. Webster, Irakli Zholoshvili, Elena Jamarjashvili, Spartak Gambarov, Behrouz Nikbin, Ashur Dostiev, Ogonazar Aknazarov, Pierre Zalloua, Igor Tsoy, Mikhail Kitaev, Mirsaid Mirrakhimov, Ashir Chariev, and Walter F. Bodmer: "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity." "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America" v.98(18); Aug 28, 2001
* [https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=my039 Spread of Haplogroup L] , from "
* [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/india The India Genealogical Project]
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