- Haplogroup F (Y-DNA)
origin-date =45,000 years BP
origin-place =North Africa, Middle East or South Asia
descendants =G, H, IJ, K
mutations =M89, M213/P137, M235, P14, P133, P134, P135, P136, P138, P139, P140, P141, P142, P145, P146, P148, P149, P151, P157, P158, P159, P160, P161, P163, P166, P187In
human genetics, Haplogroup F is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. This haplogroup and its subclades contain more than 90% of the world's extant male population, including almost everyone outside of Africa, except for Tibet, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Japan, Polynesia, and communities of indigenous Australians, while also including many men within those regions.
This ancient haplogroup may have first appeared in
North Africa, the Levant, or the Arabian Peninsulaas much as 50,000 years ago: 50,300±6500, Hammer and Zegura 2002; 48,000(38,700-55,700) [Tatiana M. Karafet "et al", [http://www.genome.org/cgi/content/abstract/gr.7172008v1 New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree] , " Genome Research", doi|10.1101/gr.7172008 (2008)] . It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to dominance appears to have been in ice age Ethiopiaor the Middle Eastor somewhere close to it within South Asia India; all of Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups also show a pattern of radiation from South Asia (haplogroups H and K) or the Middle East (haplogroups G and IJ).
Several lineages derived from Haplogroup F appear to have migrated into Africa from a homeland in
Southwest Asiasometime during prehistory. Y-chromosome haplogroups associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, R1b, and T. The occurrence of haplogroups J, R1b, and T among precolonial populations of Africa is highly correlated with the distribution of languages of the Afro-Asiatic phylum.
Besides the major clades G, H, IJ, and K, other patrilines derived from Haplogroup F-M89 can still be detected at a very low frequency among many populations of the southern fringe of Eurasia and Oceania, from
Portugalin the west to Koreaand the Malay Archipelagoin the east. India, Korea, and the Ailao Mountainsof Yunnan Provincein southwestern Chinaappear to be the only regions where such lineages, which are grouped for convenience as Haplogroup F*, comprise a significant portion of the Y-chromosome diversity of the modern populations. Haplogroup F* Y-chromosomes have been found to be particularly common among the Kucong or Yellow Lahu, a group of hunter-gatherers who live in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=17216801 Combining Genetics and Population History in the Study of Ethnic Diversity in the People's Republic of China] , M. L. Black, C. A. Wise, W. Wang, A. H. Bittles, "Human Biology" 2006 Jun;78(3):277-93] Korean F* probably reflects a rare brother clade of haplogroups G, H, IJ, and K that may have experienced a geographically limited expansion during historical times, as such Haplogroup F* Y-chromosomes have not been found among the neighboring Japanese.
The rare clades F1 (P91, P104) and F2 (M427, M428) have been identified among some of the Haplogroup F-M89 Y-chromosomes that formerly were classified as F*. The extent of the distribution of haplogroups F1 and F2 is not yet known for certain, but these two clades, like F*, seem to occur only at a very low frequency among modern human populations and primarily only among populations of India and East Asia.
The subclades of Haplogroup F with their defining mutation(s), according to the 2006 ISOGG tree (abbreviated for clarity to a maximum of five steps away from the root of Haplogroup F):
*F (M89, M213/P137, M235, P14, P133, P134, P135, P136, P138, P139, P140, P141, P142, P145, P146, P148, P149, P151, P157, P158, P159, P160, P161, P163, P166, P187)
**F1 (P91, P104)
**F2 (M427, M428) "Found at a low frequency in East Asia" [Sanghamitra Sengupta, Lev A. Zhivotovsky, Roy King, S. Q. Mehdi, Christopher A. Edmonds, Cheryl-Emiliane T. Chow, Alice A. Lin, Mitashree Mitra, Samir K. Sil, A. Ramesh, M. V. Usha Rani, Chitra M. Thakur, L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Partha P. Majumder, and Peter A. Underhill, "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists," "American Journal of Human Genetics", 2006 February; 78(2): 202–221. Published online 2005 December 16.]
**G (M201) "Most common today in some
peoples of the Caucasus; also found at a low frequency throughout Europe, the Near East, Central Asia, and Southern Asia"
***G1 (M285, M342)
*****G2a1 (P17, P18)
***G5 (M377) "Almost exclusively found in low numbers among
**H (M69) "Generally limited to
South Asia; typical of Central, East, and South Indian population as well as the Roma of Europe"
*****H1a1 (M36, M197)
*****H1a3 (M39, M138)
**IJ (M429, P123, P124, P125, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22) "per ISOGG 2008"
***I (M170, P19, M258, P38, P212, U179) "Haplogroup I notation updated to ISOGG 2008"
**** I1 (M253, M307, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111) (formerly I1a) "Typical of populations of
Scandinaviaand Northwest Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eastern Europe"
*****I1a (M21) (formerly I1a2)
*****I1b (M227) (formerly I1a1) "Appears to be limited to a marginally low frequency of approximately 1% among Slavic and
Uralic peoplesof Eastern Europe; also detected in a single Lebanese man"
******I1b1 (M72) (formerly I1a1a)
**** I2 (M438/P215/S31) (formerly I1b)
*****I2a (P37.2) (formerly I1b1) "Typical of the South Slavic peoples of the
Balkans, especially the populations of Bosnia and Croatia; also found with high haplotype diversity values, but lower overall frequency, among the West Slavic populations of Slovakiaand the Czech Republic; a node of elevated frequency in Moldaviacorrelates with that observed for Haplogroup I2a (but not for Haplogroup I1)"
*******I2a1a (P41.2/M359.2) (formerly I1b1a) "Typical of the population of the so-called "archaic zone" of
Sardinia; also found at low frequencies among populations of Southwest Europe, particularly in Castile, Béarn, and the Basque Country"
******I2a2 (M26) (formerly I1b1b)
*******I2a2a (M161) (formerly I1b1b1)
*****I2b (M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32) (formerly I1b2)
******I2b1 (M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117) (formerly I1b2a - old I1c) "Occurs at a moderate frequency among populations of Northwest Europe, with a peak frequency in the region of
Lower Saxonyin central Germany; minor offshoots appear in Moldaviaand Russia(especially around Vladimir, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and the Republic of Mordovia)"
*******I2b1a (M284) (formerly I1b2a1) "Generally limited to a low frequency in
*******I2b1b (M379) (formerly I1b2a2)
*******I2b1c (P78) (formerly I1b2a3)
*******I2b1d (P95) (formerly I1b2a4)
***J (12f2.1, M304, S6, S34, S35)
****J1 (M267) "Typical of populations of
Dagestan, Mesopotamia, the Levant, Arabia, and Semitic-speaking populations of North Africaand East Africa, with a moderate distribution throughout Southwest Asia"
*****J1c (M367, M368)
****J2 (M172) "Typical of populations of
Southern Europe, Turkey, northern Iraq, Iran, and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution throughout Southwest Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa"
*****J2b (M12, M314, M221)
******J2b1 (M102) "Mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, and Italy (possibly from Ancient Greeks)"
**K (M9) "Typical of populations of northern Eurasia, eastern Eurasia,
Melanesia, and the Americas, with a moderate distribution throughout Southwest Asia, northern Africa, and Oceania"
***K3 (P79) "Found in
***K4 (P261, P263)
***L (M11, M20, M22, M61, M185, M295) "Typical of populations of
****L1 (M27, M76) "Typical of Dravidian castes of
Indiaand Sri Lanka, with a moderate distribution among Indo-Iranianpeoples of South Asia"
****L2 (M317) "Found at low frequency among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe"
****L3 (M357) "Frequently found among
Burushoand Pashtuns, with a moderate distribution among the general Pakistani population"
*****L3a (PK3) "Found among
****M1 (M4, M5, M106, M186, M189, P35) "Typical of Papuan peoples"
******M1b1 (M104 (P22)) "Typical of populations of the
Bismarck Archipelagoand Bougainville Island" [Laura Scheinfeldt, Françoise Friedlaender, Jonathan Friedlaender, Krista Latham, George Koki, Tatyana Karafet, Michael Hammer and Joseph Lorenz, "Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia," "Molecular Biology and Evolution" 2006 23(8):1628-1641]
****M2 (M353, M387) "Found at a low frequency in the
Solomon Islandsand Fiji"
*****M2a (SRY9138 (M177))
****M3 (P117) "Found in
****N (LLY22g, M231)
*****N1 (M128) "Found at a low frequency among
Manchu, Sibe, Manchurian Evenks, Koreans, northern Han Chinese, Buyei, and some Turkic peoplesof Central Asia"
*****N2 (P43) "Typical of Northern Samoyedic peoples; also found at low to moderate frequency among some other
Uralic peoples, Turkic peoples, Mongolic peoples, Tungusic peoples, and Eskimos"
*****N3 (Tat (M46)) "Typical of the Sakha and
Uralic peoples, with a moderate distribution throughout North Eurasia"
*****O1 (MSY2.2) "Typical of Austronesians, southern
Han Chinese, and Tai-Kadai peoples"
*****O2 (P31, M268)
******O2a (M95) "Typical of Austro-Asiatic peoples, Tai-Kadai peoples, Malays, and Indonesians"
******O2b (SRY465 (M176)) "Typical of Koreans, Japanese, and
Ryukyuans, with a moderate distribution in Manchuriaand Southeast Asia"
*****O3 (M122) "Typical of populations of
East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Austronesian populations of Oceania, with a moderate distribution in Central Asia"
***P (92R7, M45, M74, (N12), P27)
*******Q1a1 (M120, M265/N14) "Found at low frequency among Chinese,
Koreans, Dungans, and Hazara" [ [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7006/extref/nature02878-s2.doc Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations] , from the online supplementary material for [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7006/abs/nature02878.html the article] by Bo Wen et al., "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture," "Nature" 431, 302-305 (16 September 2004)] [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=56946&rendertype=table&id=T1 Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region] , from [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=56946 the article] by R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (August 28, 2001)]
*******Q1a2 (M25, M143) "Found at low to moderate frequency among some populations of
Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Siberia"
********Q1a3* "Found at low frequency in
********Q1a3a (M3) "Typical of
indigenous peoples of the Americas"
*********Q1a3a1 (M19) "Found among some indigenous peoples of
South America, such as the Ticunaand the Wayuu" [ [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Bortolini-AJHG-03-YAmer.pdf "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas,"] Maria-Catira Bortolini et al., "American Journal of Human Genetics" 73:524-539, 2003]
*********Q1a3a3 (M199, P106, P292)
*******Q1a6 (M323) "Found in a significant minority of Yemeni Jews"
******Q1b (M378) "Found at low frequency among samples of Hazara and Sindhis"
****R (M207 (UTY2), M306 (S1), S4, S8, S9)
******R1a (SRY10831.2 (SRY1532)) "Typical of populations of
Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia, with a moderate distribution in Western Europe, Southwest Asia, and southern Siberia"
******R1b (M343) "Typical of populations of
Western Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eurasiaand in parts of Africa"
*****R2 (M124) "Typical of populations of
South Asia, with a moderate distribution in Central Asiaand the Caucasus"
***S (M230) "Typical of populations of the highlands of
New Guinea; also found at lower frequencies in adjacent parts of Indonesiaand Melanesia"
***T (M70, M184, M193, M272) "Found in a significant minority of Arabs, Ethiopians, Somalians, and Fulbe; also found at low frequency throughout
Southwest Asia, Northern Africa, Southern Europe, and parts of India"
* [https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=my033 Spread of Haplogroup F*] , from "
* [http://www.roperld.com/YBiallelicHaplogroups.htm Y-Chromosome Biallelic Haplogroups]
* [http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf Haplogroups World Map]
* [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/F-YDNA/ The Haplogroup F Y-DNA Project - Family Project Website]
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