- Haplogroup J (mtDNA)
Haplogroup J is a
human mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) haplogroup. Haplogroup J derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to Haplogroup T. In his popular book " The Seven Daughters of Eve", Bryan Sykesnamed the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup "Jasmine". Within the field of medical genetics, certain polymorphisms specific to haplogroup J have been associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. [ [http://class.csuhayward.edu/faculty/gmiller/3710/DNA_PDFS/mtDNA/mtHap_J_thesis.pdf Miller G. mtDNA Thesis] ]
Around 45,000 years before present, a mutation took place in the DNA of a woman who lived in the Caucasus region. Further mutations took place in the J line which can be identified as J1a1 (27,000 yrs ago), J2a (19,000 yrs ago), J2b2 (16,000 years ago), J2b3 (5,800 yrs ago), etc. Haplogroup J (along with ‘T’) is associated with the spread of farming and herding in Europe during the Neolithic Era (8,000-10,000 yrs ago). All other West Eurasian-origin groups (H, V, U, K, W, I, X) were previously given to hunting and gathering.
Average frequency of J Haplogroup as a whole is highest in the Near East (12%), followed by Europe (11%), Caucasus (8%) and North Africa (6%). Of the two main sub-groups, J1 takes up four-fifths of the total and is spread on the continent while J2 is more localised around the Mediterranean, Greece, Italy/Sardinia and Spain. In Pakistan, where West Eurasian lineages occur at frequencies of up to 50% in some ethno-linguistic groups, J1 averages around 5%, while J2 occurrence is very rare. Intriguingly, however, it is found amongst 9% of
Kalash, a small ethnic community dwelling in the Hindu Kush mountains of Pakistan.
Distribution within Europe
Within Europe, >2% frequency distribution of mtDNA J is as follows [ [http://www.upf.edu/cexs/recerca/bioevo/2000BioEvo/BE2000-Simoni-mtDNA-AJHG.pdf# BioEvolution on UPF web site] ] :
J* = Ireland - 12%, England-Wales - 11%, Scotland - 9%, Orkney - 8%, Germany - 7%, Russia (European) - 7%, Iceland - 7%, Austria-Switzerland - 5%, Finland-Estonia - 5%, Spain-Portugal - 4%, France-Italy - 3%
J1a = Austria-Switzerland - 3%
J1b1 = Scotland - 4%
J2 = France-Italy - 2%
J2a = Homogenously spread in Europe. Absent in the nations around the Caucasus. Not known to be found elsewhere. [http://class.csuhayward.edu/faculty/gmiller/3710/DNA_PDFS/mtDNA/mtHap_J_thesis.pdf]
J2b1 = Virtually absent in Europe. Found in diverse forms in the Near East. [http://class.csuhayward.edu/faculty/gmiller/3710/DNA_PDFS/mtDNA/mtHap_J_thesis.pdf]
Coalescence times for the subclades of mitochondrial haplogroup J
*Typographical error from original source material as per time table describing the spread of populations given in the same study.
Human mitochondrial genetics
* [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J1/ J1 (& subclades) mt-Haplogroup project at FTDNA]
* [http://www.familytreedna.com/public/mtJ2/ J2 (& subclades) mt-Haplogroup project at FTDNA]
* [http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/13/12/1532 mt Haplogroup J & Longevity; Article mentioning "frequency of the J haplogroup was notably higher in centenarians than in younger individuals"] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?holding=npg&cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10463944&dopt=Abstract] [http://www.springerlink.com/content/7u52mpx84u9x70rm/]
* [https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=mm018 Spread of Haplogroup J] , from "
* [http://www.upf.edu/cexs/recerca/bioevo/2000BioEvo/BE2000-Simoni-mtDNA-AJHG.pdf# Patterns of mtDNA Diversity in Europe, Lucia Simoni, 2000.]
* [http://www.utlib.ee/ekollekt/diss/mag/2004/b16664851/Serk.pdf Human Mitochondrial Haplogroup J in Europe and Near East, Piia Serk, 2004.]
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