- Internal energy
thermodynamics, the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denoted by "U", or sometimes "E", is the total of the kinetic energydue to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational, vibrational) and the potential energyassociated with the vibrational and electric energy of atoms within molecules or crystals. It includes the energyin all the chemical bonds, and the energy of the free, conduction electrons in metals.
One can also calculate the internal energy of electromagnetic or blackbody radiation. It is a
state functionof a system, and is an extensive quantity. The SIunit of energyis the joulealthough other historical, conventional units are still in use, such as the (small and large) caloriefor heat.
"Internal" energy does not include the translational or rotational kinetic energy of a body "as a whole". It also does not include the relativistic
mass-energy equivalent "E" = "mc"2. It excludes any potential energy a body may have because of its location in external gravitational or electrostatic field, although the potential energy it has in a field due to an induced electric or magnetic dipolemoment does count, as does the energy of deformationof solids (stress-strain).
The principle of equipartition of energy in classical
statistical mechanicsstates that each molecular quadratic degree of freedom receives 1/2 "kT" of energy, [cite book | last = Reif | first = Frederick | title = Statistical Physics
publisher = McGraw-Hill Book Company | year = 1965 | location = New York
pages = 246-250 ] a result which was modified when
quantum mechanicsexplained certain anomalies; e.g., in the observed specific heats of crystals (when "h"ν > "kT"). For monoatomic heliumand other noble gases, the internal energy consists only of the translational kinetic energy of the individual atoms. Monoatomic particles, of course, do not (sensibly) rotate or vibrate, and are not electronically excited to higher energies except at very high temperatures.
From the standpoint of
statistical mechanics, the internal energy is equal to the ensemble averageof the total energy of the system.
Internal energy– the sum of all microscopic forms of energy of a system. It is related to the molecular structure and the degree of molecular activity and may be viewed as the sum of kinetic and potential energies of the molecules; it is composed of the following types of energies: [cite book | last = Cengel | first = Yungus, A. | coauthors = Boles, Michael | title = Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach, 4th ed. | pages = 17-18 | publisher = McGraw-Hill | year = 2002 | id = ISBN 0-07-238332-1]
Sensible energy and latent energy may be further combined into
The first law of thermodynamics
The internal energy is essentially defined by the
first law of thermodynamicswhich states that energy is conserved:
:Δ"U" is the change in internal energy of a system during a process.
heat"added to" a system (measured in joules in SI); that is, a positivevalue for "Q" represents heat flow "into" a system while a negativevalue denotes heat flow "out of" a system.
:"W" is the
mechanical work"done on" a system (measured in joules in SI)
: "W' " is energy added by all other processes
The first law may be stated equivalently in
where the terms now represent infinitesimal amounts of the respective quantities. The "d" before the internal energy function indicates that it is an exact differential. In other words it is a state function or a value which can be assigned to the system. On the other hand, the δ's before the other terms indicate that they describe increments of energy which are not state functions but rather they are processes by which the internal energy is changed. (See the discussion in the first law article.)
From a microscopic point of view, the internal energy may be found in many different forms. For a gas it may consist almost entirely of the
kinetic energyof the gas molecules. It may also consist of the potential energy of these molecules in a gravitational, electric, or magnetic field. For any material, solid, liquid or gaseous, it may also consist of the potential energy of attraction or repulsion between the individual molecules of the material.
Expressions for the internal energy
The internal energy may be expressed in terms of other thermodynamic parameters. Each term is composed of an
intensive variable(a generalized force) and its conjugate infinitesimal extensive variable(a generalized displacement).
For example, for a non-viscous fluid, the mechanical work done on the system may be related to the
pressure"p" and volume"V". The pressure is the intensive generalized force, while the volume is the extensive generalized displacement:
Taking the default direction of work, , to be from the working fluid to the surroundings,:.:: is the
pressure:: is the volume
Taking the default direction of heat transfer, , to be into the working fluid and assuming a
reversible process, we have
temperature:: is entropy
The above two equations in the
first law of thermodynamicsimply for a closed system:
If we also incude the dependence on the numbers of particles in the system, the internal energy function may be written as where the are the numbers of particles of type j in the system. The fact that U is an extensive function when considered as a function of the variables S, V, , we have: :
From Euler's homogeneous function theorem we may now write the internal energy as:
where the are the
chemical potentials for the particles of type i in the system. These are defined as:
Einstein notationhas been used for the tensors, in which there is a summation over all repeated indices in the product term. The Euler theorem yields for the internal energy ref_harvard|LL|Landau & Lifshitz 1986|:
For a linearly elastic material, the stress can be related to the strain by:
Change in internal energy due to change in temperature and volume or pressure
The expressions given above for the internal energy involves the entropy. In practice one often wants to know the change in internal energy of a substance as a function of the change in temperature and volume, or as a function of the change in temperature and pressure.
To express dU in terms of dT and dV, we substitute
fundamental thermodynamic relation
The term is the heat capacity at constant volume .
The partial derivative of S w.r.t. V can be evaluated if the equation of state is known. From the fundamental thermodynamic relation, it follows that the differential of the
Helmholtz free energyF is given by:
symmetry of second derivativesof F w.r.t. T and V yields the Maxwell relation:
This gives the expression:
This is useful if the equation of state is known. In case of an ideal gas, which implies that , i.e. the internal energy of an ideal gas can be written as a function that depends only on the temperature.
When dealing with fluids or solids, an expression in terms of the temperature and pressure is usually more useful. The partial derivative of the pressure w.r.t. temperature at constant volume can be expressed in terms of the
coefficient of thermal expansion
and the isothermal
and equating dV to zero and solving for the ratio dP/dT. This gives:
Substituting (2) and (3) in (1) gives:
where we have used that the heat capacity at constant pressure is related to the heat capacity at constant volume according to:
as shown here.
* cite journal
author=Alberty, R. A.
url = http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/2001/pdf/7308x1349.pdf
title = Use of Legendre transforms in chemical thermodynamics
journal=Pure Appl. Chem.
year=2001 | volume=Vol. 73 | issue=8 | pages=1349–1380
doi = 10.1351/pac200173081349
* cite book
author=Lewis, Gilbert Newton; Randall, Merle: Revised by Pitzer, Kenneth S. & Brewer, Leo
publisher= McGraw-Hill Book Co.
location = New York, NY USA
id =ISBN 0-07-113809-9
last = Landau
first = L. D.
authorlink = Lev Landau
coauthors = Lifshitz, E. M.
languange = English
others = (Translated from Russian by J.B. Sykes and W.H. Reid)
year = 1986
title = Theory of Elasticity (Course of Theoretical Physics Volume 7)
edition = Third ed.
publisher = Butterworth Heinemann
location = Boston, MA
id = ISBN 0-7506-2633-X
Gibbs free energy
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