The Ionians (Greek: Polytonic|Ἴωνες, Iōnes, singular Polytonic|Ἴων) were one of the three populations into which the
ancient Greeks considered the population of Hellenesto have been divided.
"Ionian" with reference to populations had two senses in
Classical Greece. In a narrow sense they were linked by their use of the Ionic dialectspoken in settlements that were located principally on some of the Islands between Greece and Anatolia, but who resided on the coast of Anatolia as well, giving rise to the eponymously named region of Ioniathere. All the Greeks understood that the population of Ionia were descendants of migrants from the Peloponnesus and had ceded their native land to the Dorians. After a residence in Athens they and some Athenians emigrated to Anatolia and the islands. In a broader sense Ionian meant all the speakers of Ionian, Attic (the language spoken at Athens) and any other dialects of the group called East Greek today.
The other two language/cultural groups of the classical period were the
Doriansand the Aeolians. All three groups were known collectively as Hellenes. The Ionians were located around the shores of the Aegean Seaand in most of the Aegean islands. The Aeolians resided in Boeotia, Lesbos with a few other islands and the coast of Anatolia. Dorians were to be found in Macedon, Peloponnesus, Crete, Rhodesand the islands of the Dorian Hexapolis, as well as on the coast of Anatolia. Thracewas home to Greek colonists of Ionian descent and the French city of Marseillewas founded by Ionians from Phocaeain Ionia.
According to semi-historical Greek legend, Ionia was colonised by refugees from mainland Greece expelled by the invading Dorians in the
Heroic Age. According to myth, the Ionians were descended from the hero Ion, son of Xuthus, son of Hellen(the mythical progenitor of all the Hellenes, whose other two sons were Aeolusand Dorus).
The name of the Ionians
Unlike "Aeolians" and "Dorians", "Ionians" appears in the languages of different civilizations around the eastern Mediterranean and as far east as the
Indian subcontinent. They are not the earliest Greeks to appear in the records; that distinction belongs to the Danaansand the Achaeans. The trail of the Ionians begins in the Mycenaean Greek records of Crete.
Linear Btablet from Knossos(tablet Xd 146) bears the name i-ja-wo-ne, interpreted by Ventris and Chadwick [cite book|first=Michael|last=Ventris|coauthors=John Chadwick|title=Documents in Mycenaean Greek: Second Edition|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=1973|pages=page 547 in the "Glossary" under i-ja-wo-ne|id=ISBN 0-521-08558-6] as possibly the dativeor nominativeplural case of *Iāwones, an ethnic name. The Knossos tablets are dated to 1400 or 1200 B.C. They were then prior to Dorian dominance in Crete, if the name refers to Cretans.
The Homeric name, Iaones, [
Iliadbook XIII line 685.] used of some long-robed Greeks attacked by Hector, appears to be the same name without the *-w-.
Book of Genesis[10.2.] of the English Bible Javanis a son of Japheth. With regard to the tribal country-naming scheme of the Old Testament, in which the name of the country becomes an eponymous family founder, Javan is believed nearly universally by Bible scholars to represent the Ionians; that is, Javan is Ion. The Hebrew is Yāwān, plural Yəwānīm. [cite book|first=Geoffrey William (General Editor)|last=Bromiley|title=The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Volume Two: Fully Revised: E-J: Javan|year=1994|publisher=Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing|location=Grand Rapids, Michigan|pages=page 971|id=ISBN 0802837824]
Additionally but less surely Japheth may be related linguistically to the Greek mythological figure Iapetus. [cite encyclopedia|encyclopedia=The Encyclopedia Britannica: a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information|title=Iapetus|url=http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/I27_INV/IAPETUS.html|accessdate=2008-01-09|edition=11|date=1910-1911|publisher=Cambridge University Press, Online Encyclopedia|volume=14|location=Cambridge, England and New York (printed)|pages=page 215]
The locations of Biblical tribal countries have been the subjects of centuries of scholarship and yet remain to various degrees open questions. The
Book of Isaiah[66.19.] gives what may be a hint by listing "the nations ... that have not heard my fame" (God's) including Javan and immediately after "the isles afar off." Are the isles in appositionto Javan or the last item in the series? If the former, the expression is typically used of the population of the islands in the Aegean Sea.
The date of the Book of Isaiah cannot precede the date of the man
Isaiah, which was the 8th century BC.
Some letters of the Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BC record attacks by what appear to be Ionians on the cities of
For example, a raid by the Ionians (ia-u-na-a-a) on the Phoenician coast is reported to
Tiglath-Pileser IIIin a letter of the 730's find at Nimrud. [cite book|first=Irad|last=Malkin|title=The Return of Odysseus: Colonization and Ethnicity|year=1998|publisher=University of California Press|location=Berkeley|id-ISBN 0520211855|pages=page 148]
The Assyrian word, which is preceded by the country determinative, has been reconstructed as *Iaunaia. [cite book|first=John Miles|last=Foley|title=A Companion to Ancient Epic|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|year=2005|pages=page294|location=Malden, Ma.|id=ISBN 1405105240] More common is ia-a-ma-nu, ia-ma-nu and ia-am-na-a-a with the country determinative, reconstructed as Iamānu. [cite book|first=William|last=Muss-Arnolt|title=A Concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language: Volume I: A-MUQQU: Iamānu|publisher=Reuther & Reichard; Williams & Morgate; Lemcke & Büchner|location=Berlin; London; New York|year=1905|pages=page 360]
Sargon IIrelated that he took the latter from the sea like fish and that they were from "the sea of the setting sun." [Citation|first=R.A.|last=Kearsley|contribution=Greeks Overseas in the 8th Century B.C.: Euboeans, Al Mina and Assyrian Imperialism|title=Ancient Greeks West and East|editor-first=Gocha R.|editor-last=Tsetskhladze|pages=109-134|publisher=Brill|place=Leiden, Boston, Köln|year=1999|id=ISBN 9004102302 See pages 120-121.] If the identification of Assyrian names is correct, at least some of the Ionian marauders came from Cyprus: [Citation|first=T.F.R.G.|last=Braun|editor-last=Boardman|editor-first=John|editor2-last=Hammond|editor2-first=N.G.L.|contribution=The Greeks in the Near East: IV. Assyrian Kings and the Greeks|title=The Cambridge Ancient History: III Part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C.|year=1925|pages=14-24|publisher=Cambridge University Press|id=ISBN 0521234476 See page 17 for the quote.]
Sargon's Annals for 709, claiming that tribute was sent to him by 'seven kings of Ya (ya-a'), a district of Yadnana whose distant abodes are situated a seven-days' journey in the sea of the setting sun', is confirmed by a
steleset up at Citiumin Cyprus 'at the base of a mountain ravine ... of Yadnana.'
Ionians appear in Indic literature and documents as Yavana and Yona. In documents these names refer to the
Indo-Greek Kingdoms; that is, the states formed by the Macedonians, either Alexander the Greator his successors on the Indian subcontinent. The earliest such documentation is the Edicts of Ashoka, dated to 250 BC, within 10 or 20 years.
Prior to then the Yavanas appear in the
Vedaswith reference to the Vedic period, which could be as early as the 2nd millennium BC. The Vedas are to be distinguished from the Vedic period, which is much older than they. If there were any hope of finding aboriginal Indo-European Ionians under that name it would be there, but in the Vedas the Yavanas are a kingdom of Mlechhas, or barbarians, to the far west, out of the line of descent of Indic culture, in the same category as the Sakas, or Skythians (who spoke Iranian), and thus probably already were Greek. They had expanded from west to east, not vice versa. The Ionians of the Aegean are the identity customarily assigned to them.
Ionians appear in a number of
Old Persianinscriptions of the Achaemenid Empireas Yaunā, a nominativeplural masculine, singular Yauna; [cite book|first=Roland G.|last=Kent|title=Old Persian: Grammar Texts Lexicon: Second Edition, Revised|publisher=American Oriental Society|location=New Haven, Connecticut|year=1953|id=ISBN 0-940490-33-1|pages=page 204] for example, in inscription of Dariuson the south wall of the palace at Persepolisincludes in the provinces of the empire "Ionians who are of the mainland and (those) who are by the sea, and countries which are across the sea; ...." [Kent page 136.] At that time the empire probably extended around the Aegean to northern Greece.
etymologyof the word is uncertain of proof. Both Frisk and Beekes isolate an unknown root, *Ia-, pronounced *ya-. [cite web|title=Indo-European Etymological Dictionary|publisher=Leiden University| the IEEE Project|url=http://www.indoeuropean.nl/index2.html To find the full presentation in H.J. Frisk's "Grieschisches Woeterbuch" search on page 1,748, being sure to include the comma. For a similar presentation in Beekes' "A Greek Etymological Dictionary" search on "Ionian" in "Etymology". Both linguists state a full panoply of "Ionian" words with sources.] There are, however, some theories:
* From an unknown early name of an eastern Mediterranean island population represented by Ha-nebu, an ancient Egyptian name for the people living there. [cite book|first=Eric|last=Partridge|title=Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English: Ionian|publisher=Greenwich House|location=New York|year=1983|id=ISBN 0-517-414252]
* From ancient Egyptian 'iwn "pillar, tree trunk" extended into 'iwnt "bow" (of wood?) and 'Iwntyw "bowmen, barbarians." [cite book|first=Martin|last=Bernal|title=Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization: Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985|publisher=Rutgers University Press|year=1991|location=New Brunswick, N.J.|pages=83-84|id=ISBN 0813512778] This derivation is analogous on the one hand to the possible derivation of
Doriansand on the other fits the Egyptian concept of "nine bows" with reference to the Sea Peoples.
* From an Indo-European onomatopoeic root *wi- or *woi- expressing a shout uttered by persons running to the assistance of others; according to Pokorny, *Iawones would mean "Verehren des Apollo", "devotees of Apollo", based on the cry "iē paiōn" uttered in his worship. [cite web|title=Indo-European Etymological Dictionary|publisher=Leiden University| the IEEE Project|url=http://www.indoeuropean.nl/index2.html In Pokorny's "Indogermanisches Etymologisches Woerterbuch" search for page 1176.]
In a landmark article of 1964 [Citation|first=Vladimir|last=Georgiev|author-link=Vladimir Georgiev|editor-last=Bennett|editor-first=Emmett L. Jr.|contribution=Mycenaean Greek among the Other Greek Dialects|title=Mycenaean Studies: Proceedings of the Third International Colloquium for Mycenaean Studies Held at "Wingspread," 4-8 September 1961|year=1964|pages=125-139|place=Madison|publisher=The University of Wisconsin Press|id=LC 63-8435.]
Vladimir Georgievsummarized the relationship of the three main historical dialects and gave an estimate of their chronology as follows. Prior to the 20th century BC existed three dialects of Greek: Iawonic, Iawolic and Doric (Georgiev's names). Iawonic was spoken in Attica, Euboea, East Boeotiaand the Peloponnesus.
In the 16th century BC a new koinē was formed from Iawonic and Iawolic: the
Mycenaean Greek language. It persisted until about 1200 when it became the major source of Arcado-Cyprian, with some Doric influence. The Ionians taking up the tradition of epic poetrycreated Homeric Greek. Ionian descends from Iawonic.
The literary evidence of the Ionians leads back to mainland Greece in Mycenaean times before there was an
Ionia. The classical sources seem determined that they were to be called Ionians along with other names even then. This view cannot be documented with inscriptional evidence and yet the literary evidence, which is manifestly at least partially legendary, seems to reflect a general verbal tradition.
The tradition of Herodotus
Herodotusof Halicarnassusasserts: ["Histories" Book I chapter 147.]
all are Ionians who are of Athenian descent and keep the feastHe further explains: ["Histories" Book I chapter 143.]
The whole Hellenic stock was then small, and the last of all its branches and the least regarded was the Ionian; for it had no considerable city exceptThe Ionians spread from Athens to other places in the
Athens. Aegean Sea: Sifnosand Serifos, [Book 8 Section 48.1.] Naxos, [Book 8 section 46.3.] Kea, Chalcidice, Eretria [Book 8 Section 46.2.] and Samos. [Book 6 Section 22.3.] But they were not just from Athens: ["Histories" Book 7 chapter 94.]
These Ionians, as long as they were in theAchaea was divided into 12 communities originally Ionian: [Book 1 Section 145.1.] Pellene, Aegira,
Peloponnesus, dwelt in what is now called Achaea, and before Danausand Xuthuscame to the Peloponnesus, as the Greeks say, they were called Aegialian Pelasgians. They were named Ionians after Ionthe son of Xuthus. Aegae, Bura, Helice, Aegion, Rhype, Patrae, Phareae, Olenus, Dymeand Tritaeae. The most aboriginal Ionians were of Cynuria: [Book 8 Section 73.3.]
The Cynurians are aboriginal and seem to be the only Ionians, but they have been Dorianized by time and by Argive rule.
The tradition of Strabo
Strabo's account of the origin of the Ionians, Hellen, son of Deucalion, ancestor of the Hellenes, king of Phthia, arranged a marriage between his son Xuthusand the daughter of king Erechtheusof Athens. Xuthus then founded the Tetrapolis ("Four Cities") of Attica, a rural district. His son, Achaeus, went into exile in a land subsequently called Achaea after him. Another son of Xuthus, Ion, conquered Thrace, after which the Athenians made him king of Athens. Attica was called Ionia after his death. Those Ionians colonized Aigialiachanging its name to Ionia also. When the Heracleidae returned the Achaeans drove the Ionians back to Athens. Under the Codridae they set forth for Anatoliaand founded 12 cities in Cariaand Lydiafollowing the model of the 12 cities of Achaea, formerly Ionian. ["Geography" Book 8 Section 7.1.]
During the 6th century BC, Ionian coastal towns such as
Miletusand Ephesusbecame the focus of a revolution in approaches to traditional thinking about Nature. Instead of explaining natural phenomena by recourse to traditional religion/myth, the cultural climate was such that men began to form hypotheses about the natural world based on ideas gained from both personal experience and deep reflection. These men - Thalesand his successors - were called "physiologoi", those who discoursed on Nature. They were sceptical of religious explanations for natural phenomena and instead sought purely mechanical and physical explanations. They are credited as being of critical importance to the development of the 'scientific attitude' towards the study of Nature. ("see" Ionian school)
* J.A.R Munro. Pelasgians and Ionians, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1934 (JSTOR).
* R. M. Cook. Ionia and Greece in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries B. C., The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1946 (JSTOR).
* Note that the online edition omits the critical bibliography and runs paragraphs and section headings together. The paragraph division is not the one of the article. The reader should be aware that although useful the article necessarily omits all of modern scholarship.
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