- Eduard Bernstein
Bernstein was born in
Berlinto Jewish parents. His political career began in 1872, when he became a member of the so-called "Eisenachers" (named after the German town Eisenach), a socialistparty with Marxisttendencies formally known as "Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Eisenacher Programms". Bernstein's party contested two elections against a rival socialist party, the "Lassalleans" ( Ferdinand Lassalle's "Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein"), but in both elections neither party was able to win a significant majority of the left-wingvote. Consequently, together with August Bebeland Wilhelm Liebknecht, Bernstein prepared the "Einigungsparteitag" ("unification party congress") with the Lassalleans in Gotha in 1875. Karl Marx's famous Critique of the Gotha Programcriticized what he saw as a Lassallean victory over the Eisenachers whom he favored; interestingly, Bernstein later noted that it was Liebknecht, considered by many to be the strongest Marxist advocate within the Eisenacher faction, who proposed the inclusion of many of the ideas which so thoroughly irritated Marx.
In 1878, Bernstein accepted the position of private secretary for social democratic patron Karl Höchberg, who lived in
Zürich. On October 12, 1878, Otto von Bismarck's strict anti-Socialist legislation was passed in the Reichstag, and, as a result, Bernstein found himself an exile. In 1888, Bismark successfully convinced the Swiss government to expel a number of key members of the German social democratic movement from its country, and so Bernstein moved to London, where he had close contacts to Friedrich Engelsand Karl Kautsky.
Between 1880 and 1890, Bernstein edited the magazine "Sozialdemokrat" ("Social Democrat"); in 1891, he was one of the authors of the
Erfurt Program, and from 1896 to 1898, he released a series of articles entitled "Probleme des Sozialismus" ("Problems of Socialism") that led to the revisionism debate in the SPD. He also wrote a book titled "Die Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus und die Aufgaben der Sozialdemokratie" ("The Prerequisites for Socialism and the Tasks of Social Democracy") in 1899. The book was in sharp contrast to the positions of August Bebel, Karl Kautskyand Wilhelm Liebknecht. Rosa Luxemburg's 1900 essay " Reform or Revolution?" was also a polemicagainst Bernstein's position.
In 1901, he returned to
Germany, following the lifting of a ban that had kept him from entering the country, and became a member of the Reichstag from 1902 to 1918. He voted against the armament tabling in 1913, together with the SPD fraction's left wing. Although he had voted for war credits in August 1914, from July 1915 he opposed the World War Iand in 1917 he was among the founders of the USPD, which united anti-war socialists (including reformists like Bernstein, 'centrists' like Kautsky and orthodox Marxists like Liebknecht). He was a member of the USDP until 1919, when he rejoined the SPD. From 1920 to 1928 Bernstein was again a member of the Reichstag. He retired from political life in 1928.
Bernstein died on
December 18 1932in Berlin; a commemorative plaque is placed in his memory at Bozener Straße 18, Berlin-Schöneberg, where he lived from 1918 to his death.
"Die Voraussetzungen" was Bernstein's most significant work and was principally concerned with refuting Marx's predictions about the imminent demise of
capitalism. In it, Bernstein pointed out simple facts that he took to be evidence that Marx's predictions were not being borne out: he noted that the centralisation of capitalist industry, while significant, was not becoming wholescale and that the ownership of capital was becoming more, and not less, diffuse. He also pointed out some of the flaws in Marx's labor theory of value.
In its totality, Bernstein's analysis formed a powerful critique of Marxism, and this led to his vilification among many orthodox Marxists. Bernstein remained, however, very much a socialist, albeit an unorthodox one (he was not hostile to
Trade Unionsand Producers Co-operatives); he believed that socialism would be achieved through capitalism, not through capitalism's destruction (as rights were gradually won by workers, their cause for grievance would be diminished, and consequently, so too would the foundation of revolution). Although Marx would argue that free tradewould be the quickest fulfillment of the capitalist system, and thus its end, Bernstein viewed protectionismas helping only a selective few, being "fortschrittsfeindlich" (anti-progressive), for its negative effects on the masses. Germany's protectionism, Bernstein argued, was only based on political expediency, isolating Germany from the world (especially from Britain), creating an autarkythat would only result in conflict between Germany and the rest of the world. [cite journal|author=R. A. Fletcher|title=Cobden as Educator: The Free-Trade Internationalism of Eduard Bernstein, 1899-1914|year=1983|publisher=American Historical Review|volume=88|issue=3|pages=561–578]
He is also noted for being "one of the first socialists to deal sympathetically with the issue of
homosexuality." [ [http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bernstein/index.htm Eduard Bernstein Archive] ]
* Eduard Bernstein, "Cromwell and Communism: Socialism and Democracy in the Great English Revolution", International Specialized Book Service Inc, 1963, hardcover, ISBN 0-7146-1454-8; trade paperback, Spokesman Books, 1980, ISBN 0-85124-286-3; trade paperback, 287 pages, Coronet Books, 2000, ISBN 0-85124-630-3
* Eduard Bernstein, "Evolutionary Socialism: A Criticism and Affirmation", Random House, 1961, trade paperback, ISBN 0-8052-0011-8; trade paperback, ISBN 1-299-16172-3
* Eduard Bernstein, "My Years of Exile: Reminiscences of a Socialist", Greenwood Publishing Group, 1986, hardcover, ISBN 0-313-25114-2
* Eduard Bernstein, "Selected Writings of Eduard Bernstein, 1900-1921", Prometheus Books, 1996, hardcover, ISBN 1-57392-357-5
Peter Gay, "The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism: Eduard Bernstein's challenge to Marx", Octagon Books, ISBN 0-88254-837-9; Collier Books, trade paperback ISBN 0-374-93017-1
* James W. Hulse, "Revolutionists in London: a study of five unorthodox Socialists", Clarendon Press, 1970, ISBN 0-19-827175-1
* S. Ramaswamy and Subrata Mukherjee, "Eduard Bernstein - His Thoughts and Works: His Life and Works", Deep & Deep Publications, 1998, hardcover, ISBN 81-7100-768-6
* Manfred B. Steger, "Quest for Evolutionary Socialism: Eduard Bernstein and Social Democracy", Cambridge University Press, 1997, hardcover, 287 pages, ISBN 0-521-58200-8
* Edited by Henry Tudor and J. M. Tudor, "Marxism and Social Democracy: The Revisionist Debate, 1896-1898", Cambridge University Press, 1988, hardcover, 1988, ISBN 0-521-34049-7
* [http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bernstein/index.htm Eduard Bernstein Archive] in www.marxists.org.
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