Volgograd


Volgograd

Infobox Russian city
EnglishName=Volgograd
RussianName=Волгоград
Skyline=Train Station (V).jpg
Skyline

LatDeg=48
LatMin=42
LatSec
LonDeg=44
LonMin=31
LonSec
Locator

LocatorMap





CityDay=Second Sunday of September
FederalSubject=Volgograd Oblast
MunStatus=Urban okrug
InJurisdictionOf=Volgograd Oblast
AdmCtrOf=Volgograd Oblast
LeaderType=Head
LeaderName=Roman Grebennikov
Legislature=City Duma
Charter=Charter of the Hero City Volgograd
Area_km2=565
AreaRank
Population=1011417
PopulationRank=12th
FoundationDate=1555
Event1=Town status
Event1Date=1780
Event2=Renamed "Stalingrad"
Event2Date=1925
Event3=Renamed "Volgograd"
Event3Date=1961
PostalCode=400001..400138
DialingCode=8442
Website=http://www.volgadmin.ru

Volgograd (audio-ru|Волгогра́д|ru-Volgograd.ogg), formerly called Tsaritsyn (audio-ru|Цари́цын|ru-Tsaritsyn.ogg) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (audio-ru|Сталингра́д|ru-Stalingrad.ogg) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is 80 kilometres long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River.

History

Volgograd originated with the foundation in 1589 of the fortress of Tsaritsyn at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and Volga Rivers. The fortress, which took its name from the local name "Sary Su" ("Yellow Water/River" in the Tatar language), was established to defend the unstable southern border of Tsarist Russia and became the nucleus of a trading settlement. It was captured twice by Cossack rebels, under Stenka Razin in the rebellion of 1670 and Yemelyan Pugachev in 1774. Tsaritsyn became an important river port and commercial centre in the 19th century.

The city was the scene of heavy fighting during the Russian Civil War. Bolshevik forces occupied it during 1918, but were attacked by White forces under Anton Ivanovich Denikin. During the battle for Tsaritsyn the Bolsheviks were pushed back and surrounded at first, and only the actions of Joseph Stalin, then local chairman of the military committee, saved the city for the Bolsheviks. Stalin did so by recalling Zhloba's 'Steel Division' from the Caucasus which attacked the White Forces in the rear. In honor of Stalin's efforts in defending the city, it was renamed "Stalingrad" (literally: "Stalin city") in 1925. The name change is typical of the way towns and cities were re-named after Bolshevik leaders and heroes during Soviet times. (See also List of places named after Stalin.)

Under Stalin, the city became heavily industrialized and was developed as a centre of heavy industry and trans-shipment by rail and river. During World War II (Great Patriotic War), the city of Stalingrad became the center of the Battle of Stalingrad as well as the pivotal turning point in the war against Germany. The battle lasted from August 21, 1942 to February 2, 1943. 1.7 million to 2 million Axis and Soviet soldiers were either killed, wounded or captured, as well as over 40,000 civilians killed. The city was reduced to rubble during the fierce fighting, but reconstruction began soon after the Germans were expelled from the city.

For the heroism shown during the battle, Stalingrad was awarded the title Hero City in 1945, and King George VI of the United Kingdom awarded the citizens of Stalingrad a jeweled sword in appreciation of the bravery that they had shown. A memorial complex commemorating the battle, dominated by an immense allegorical sculpture of Mother Russia, was erected on the Mamayev Kurgan, a hill that saw some of the most intense fighting during the battle. A number of cities around the world (especially ones that had suffered particularly badly during the war) established sister/friendship/twinning links (see list below). It was part of the world's first such link when it formed a twinning relationship with the English city of Coventry during World War II (as both suffered heavy bombing).The Panorama museum, which is located alongside the Volga river, contains artifacts from World War II. These include a panoramic painting of the battlefield from the location of the monument "Mamayev Kurgan." Here a rifle of the famous sniper Vasily Zaytsev, can also be found.

In 1961, the city's name was changed to Volgograd ("Volga City") as part of Nikita Khrushchev's programme of de-Stalinization. This was and remains somewhat contentious, given the fame of the name Stalingrad, and there were once serious proposals to change the name back during Konstantin Chernenko's brief administration in 1985. There is still a strong degree of local support for a reversion and proposals have been made from time to time, though as yet none have been accepted by the Russian government.

Economy

Modern Volgograd is still an important industrial city. Its industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, steel and aluminium production, manufacture of machinery and vehicles, and chemical production. A large Volgograd Hydroelectric Plant stands a short distance to the north of Volgograd.

Transport

Volgograd is a major railway junction with links to Moscow, the Donbas region of Ukraine, the Caucasus, and Siberia. It stands at the east end of the Volga-Don Canal, opened in 1952 to link the two great rivers of Southern Russia.

European route E40, the longest European route connecting Calais, France with Ridder, Kazakhstan, passes through Volgograd.

Volgograd's public transport system includes a light rail service known as the Volgograd metrotram.

Education

Educational institutions include [http://www.volsu.ru Volgograd State University] , [http://www.vstu.ru/eng/index.shtml Volgograd State Technical University] (former Volgograd Polytechnical University), [http://volgmed.ru Volgograd State Medical University] , Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Volgograd Academy of Industry, and Volgograd State Pedagogical University.

ister cities

As of 2008, Volgograd had 20 sister cities [http://www.volgadmin.ru/EN2/Municipality/FriendlyRelationship.aspx Friendly relationship at Official website of Volgograd] ] :
*flagicon|United Kingdom Coventry, United Kingdom (1943)
*flagicon|Czech Republic Ostrava, Czech Republic (1948)
*flagicon|Finland Kemi, Finland (1953)
*flagicon|Belgium Liège, Belgium (1959)
*flagicon|France Dijon, France (1959)
*flagicon|Italy Turin, Italy (1961)
*flagicon|Egypt Port Said, Egypt (1962)
*flagicon|India Chennai, India (1966)
*flagicon|Japan Hiroshima, Japan (1972)
*flagicon|Germany Cologne, Germany (1988)
*flagicon|Germany Chemnitz, Germany (1988)
*flagicon|United States Cleveland, United States (1990)
*flagicon|Canada Toronto, Canada (1991)
*flagicon|People's Republic of China Jilin, China (1994)
*flagicon|Armenia Yerevan, Armenia (1998)
*flagicon|People's Republic of China Chengdu, China (1998)
*flagicon|Serbia Kruševac, Serbia (1999)
*flagicon|Bulgaria Rousse, Bulgaria (2001)
*flagicon|United States Huntingdon, United States (2003)
*flagicon|United States Orlando, United States (2008)A number of communities in France have streets or avenues named after Stalingrad, hence "Place de la Bataille de Stalingrad" in Paris and the eponymous Paris Métro station of Stalingrad.

External links

*en icon [http://www.volgadmin.ru/en2/ Official website of Volgograd]
*ru icon [http://www.volgadmin.ru Official website of Volgograd]
*ru icon [http://www.volga34.ru Volga34 – directory organizations of Volgograd]
*ru icon [http://www.volgograd.ru Volgograd.ru — City Web Portal, Local Business and Web Directory, News, Press, Webcams, 3D Mamayev Kurgan]
* [http://community.webshots.com/user/summitphotographics Over 2,000 original German WWII soldier photographs from the Eastern Front]
* [http://www.russia-travel.ws/regions/Volgograd/ Sights of Volgograd]
* [http://galerie.knez.cz/ALBUM/stalingrad/ Photo Gallery from Volgograd]
* [http://www.historisches-tonarchiv.de/STALINGRAD/stalingrad.htm Stalingrad - Bilder einer erbitterten Schlacht] (german)

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Volgograd — (Tsaritsyne jusqu en 1925, Stalingrad de 1925 à 1961) v. de Russie, sur la r. dr. de la Volga; 981 000 hab.; ch. l. de la région du m. nom. Import. centre industriel grâce au complexe hydroélectrique de la Volga …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Volgograd — er en by i Rusland ved floden Volga. Byen blev før 1925 kaldt for Tsaritsyn. Fra 1925 1961 hed byen Stalingrad. Byen har cirka 1,0 millioner indbyggere. Af industri har den olieraffinaderier, skibsværft, aluminiumsværk og stålværk. Byen er… …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Volgograd — [väl′gə grad΄, vōl′gə grad; ] Russ [ vō̂l gä grät′] city in SC European Russia, on the Volga: scene of a decisive Soviet victory (1943) over German troops in WWII: pop. 1,003,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Volgograd — « Stalingrad » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Stalingrad (homonymie). Volgograd Волгоград …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Volgograd — /vol geuh grad , vohl /; Russ. /veuhl gu grddaht /, n. a city in the SW Russian Federation in Europe, on the Volga River: battles in World War II, September 1942 February 1943. 999,000. Formerly, Stalingrad, Tsaritsyn. * * * formerly (until 1925) …   Universalium

  • Volgograd — Original name in latin Volgograd Name in other language Caricyn, Estalingrado, Gorad Valgagrad, Stalingrad, Stalingrado, Tsaritsyn, VOG, Vl gogradu, Volgograd, Volgograda, Volgogradas, Volgogrado, Volgogradum, Volgogrd, Volnkonkrant, Volqoqrad,… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Volgograd — Stadt Wolgograd Волгоград Flagge Wappen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Volgograd — Sp Volgogrãdas Ap Волгоград/Volgograd Sp Caricynas Ap Царицын Sp Stalingrãdas Ap Волгоград/Volgograd L RF sr. centras …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Volgograd — Stalingrad (former name 1925 1961), Tsaritsyn (former name), Wołgograd (Polish), Carycyn (former Polish), Volgograd (Romanian, Slovene, Turkish), Volgogrado (Portuguese, Spanish), Wolgograd (German), Estalinegrado (former Portuguese),… …   Names of cities in different languages

  • Volgograd — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Volgograd Country and Admin Code RU.84 RU …   World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II


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