- Amsterdam (VOC ship)
The "Amsterdam" was a 18th century
cargo shipof the Dutch East India Company. The ship started its maiden voyage from Texelto Bataviaon 8 January 1749, but was wrecked in a storm on the North Seaon 26 January 1749. The shipwreckwas discovered in 1969 in the bay of Bulverhythe, United Kingdom, and is sometimes visible during low tides. The wreck site is protected under the Protection of Wrecks Actsince 1974. Some of the findings from the site are in the Shipwreck and Coastal Heritage Centrein Hastings. A ship replicawas built between 1985–1990 and can be visited in the Netherlands Maritime Museum in Amsterdam.
The "Amsterdam" was an
East Indiamanor "mirror return ship" (Dutch: "spiegelretourschip") built for transport between the Dutch Republicand the settlements and strongholds of the Dutch East India Companyin the East Indies. On an outward voyage these ships carried guns and bricks for the settlements and strongholds, and silver and golden coins to purchase Asian goods. On a return journey the ships carried the goods that were purchased, such as spices, fabrics, and china. In both ways the ships carried victuals, clothes, and tools for the sailors and soldiers on the ship. On an outward voyage of eight months, the ships were populated by around 240 men, and on a return journey by around 70.
The "Amsterdam" was built in the
shipyardfor the Amsterdam chamber of the Dutch East India Companyin Amsterdam.cite web
last = Overbeek
first = J.H.D. van
title = Gegevens VOC-schip Amsterdam 1748
work = De VOCsite
url = http://www.vocsite.nl/schepen/detail.html?id=10038
accessdate = 2008-04-28 ] The ship was made of the wood of
maiden voyageof the "Amsterdam" was planned from the Dutch island Texelto the settlement Batavia in the East Indies. The ship, commanded by the 33-year-old captain Willem Klump, had 203 crew, 127 soldiers, and 5 passengers. The "Amsterdam" was laden with textiles, wine, stone ballast, cannon, paper, pens, pipes, domestic goods and 27 chests of silver guilder coins. The whole cargo would be worth several million euros in modern money.Fact|date=April 2008
15 November 1748the ship made its first attempt but returned on 19 november 1748due to an adverse wind. The ship made a second attempt on 21 November 1748, which also failed and from which the ship returned on 6 december 1748. The third attempt was made on 8 January 1749. The "Amsterdam" had problems in the English Channel tacking into a strong westerly storm. For many days she got no further than Beachy Headnear Eastbourne. Black Deathappeared amongst the crew and a mutinybroke out. Finally the rudderbroke off and the ship, helpless in a storm, grounded in the mud and sand of in the bay of Bulverhytheon 26 January 1749, 5 km to the west of Hastings.Fact|date=April 2008
She began to sink into the mud, where much of the keel remains today, perfectly preserved. Some of the cargo, including silver coinage, was removed for safekeeping by local authorities. There was some looting and English troops had to be called in to bring the situation to order. The crew were looked after locally before being returned to the
In 1969, the "Amsterdam" was discovered after being exposed by a low
spring tide. It is the best-preserved VOC ship ever found. Archaeologist Peter Marsdendid the first surveying of the wreck, and he advised further excavation.
The wrecksite was designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act on
5 February 1974.
VOC Ship Amsterdam Foundationstarted researching the wreck, followed by major excavations in 1984, 1985 and 1986, during which huge numbers of artifacts were found. Although the wreck is submerged in the sand and mud of the beach (and is even visible at very low tides), much of the excavation was done by divers, for whom a small tower was constructed near the wreck. Additionally the wreck was surrounded by an iron girder frame. The archeological output was so dense that new ways of researching needed to be developed, all of which were needed to understand the technological, socio-economic and cultural features of the VOC. Some of the finds are on show at the Shipwreck and Coastal Heritage Centrein Hastings, East Sussex, UK. The wreck is protected and diving on it or removing timbers or any artifacts is forbidden. The ship may be visited as the timbers are exposed at very low tides in the sand just opposite the footbridge over the railway line at Bulverhythe.
ship replicawas built in Iroko wood by 400 volunteers using tools of the period, between 1985 and 1990. It was floated to Amsterdamand is situated next to the Netherlands Maritime Museum ( Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum) where it can be visited. As for the original ship, there had been hopes in the 1980s that the Dutch Government, which still owns it, might excavate the whole wreck and return it for restoration and display in Amsterdam, like the " Regalskeppet Vasa" in Sweden, or the " Mary Rose" in Portsmouth, but the funds were not forthcoming. Several decks and much of the bowsprit lie submerged in the mud and are in remarkably good condition, being naturally preserved by the mud and much of the cargo is still aboard.
comic book"Angst op de "Amsterdam" of Spike and Suzyis about the "Amsterdam". The book was published in 1985 in The Red Seriesof Spike and Suzy.
In the miniature park
Madurodamin The Hagueis a model of the "Amsterdam" on a scale of 1:25.it was a trade ship
* [http://www.shipwreck-heritage.org.uk/maritime-shore/amsterdam/index.html Amsterdam Wreck Shore] at the
Shipwreck and Coastal Heritage Centre
* [http://www.scheepvaartmuseum.nl/index.php?PageID=189 Eastindiaman Amsterdam] at the
*nl icon [http://www.vocsite.nl/schepen/detail.html?id=10038 Gegevens VOC-schip Amsterdam 1748]
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