Vickers Vanguard


Vickers Vanguard

infobox Aircraft
name = Type 950 Vanguard
type = airliner
manufacturer = Vickers-Armstrongs




caption = Vickers Vanguard (G-APEC) at London Heathrow Airport in 1965. This aircraft was built in 1959 and was lost (broke up in flight) in 1971.
designer =
first flight = 20 January 1959
introduced = 1961
retired = 1996
status =
primary user = British European Airways
more users = Trans-Canada Airlines
produced =
number built = 43
unit cost =
developed from = Vickers Viscount
variants with their own articles =
:"The name "Vanguard" had earlier been used on a civilian model of the Vickers Virginia bomber, other versions of the same aircraft being the Victoria and Valentia."

The Type 950 Vanguard was a British short/medium-range turboprop airliner introduced in 1959 by Vickers-Armstrongs, a development of their successful Viscount design with considerably more internal room. The Vanguard was introduced just before the first of the large jet-powered airliners, and was largely ignored by the market. Only 43 were built, ordered by Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA) and British European Airways (BEA). After only about 10 years service TCA experimentally converted one of theirs to a freighter configuration, calling it the Cargoliner. This was considered successful, and in the early 1970s most were converted to freighters, those from BEA becoming the Merchantman. These freighters remained in service for many years, with the last one (G-APEP) only retiring in 1996.

Development

The aircraft was designed to a BEA requirement for a 100-seat aircraft to replace their Viscounts. The original Type 870 design was then modified when TCA expressed their interest in the design as well, and Vickers returned the updated Type 950 that filled both requirements.

The main difference between the Viscount and Vanguard was the construction of the fuselage. The Vanguard started with the original Viscount fuselage, but cut it off about half of the way up from the bottom, and replaced the top section with a larger-diameter fuselage to give it a "double bubble" cross-section (similar to the Boeing Stratocruiser). The result of the larger upper portion was a roomier interior, with increased cargo capacity below the floor.

With this larger, and heavier, fuselage came the need for a new engine to lift it. Rolls-Royce delivered their new Tyne design with a nominal 4,000 hp (3,000 kW) (as compared to the Viscount's Dart of about 1,700 hp (1,300 kW)).

This allowed for a much higher service ceiling and cruise speed, the Vanguard had a service ceiling almost twice that of the Viscount. The Vanguard was one of the fastest turboprops ever and was faster than the present day Saab 2000 or de Havilland Canada Dash 8.

The first Type 950 prototype flew on 20 January 1959, entering service in 1961. The last Merchantman (Vanguard) was retired by Hunting Cargo Airlines on 30 September 1996 and donated to Brooklands Museum on 17 October.

Accidents and Incidents

* On 27 October 1965 BEA Vickers Vanguard G-APEE flying from Edinburgh Airport to London Heathrow Airport, during a landing in poor visibility, attempted an overshoot but crashed on runway 28R. All on board died, 6 crew and 30 passengers.
* On 2 October 1971 BEA Vickers Vanguard G-APEC crashed near Aarsele in Belgium. 8 crew and 55 passengers died.
* On 10 April 1973 Invicta International Airways Vickers Vanguard G-AXOP crashed near Basel/Mulhouse Airport Switzerland. 4 crew and 104 passengers died.
* On 6 February 1989 Inter Cargo Service Vickers Vanguard F-GEJE crashed on takeoff from Marseille-Marignane Airport, France. 3 crew died, no passengers carried.

Variants

:Type 951: BEA, 20 ordered, 6 delivered. All in 127 seat mixed class configuration (18 first and 109 economy):Type 952: TCA, more powerful engine and stronger fuselage and wing for higher weights, 23 delivered:Type 953: BEA, Same engines as 951, but the stronger airframe of the 952. Mostly operated as 135 seater all economy, but some configured as 127 mixed class the same as 951. 14 delivered replacing an order for 951's:Type 953C Merchantman: 9 Conversions from Type 953

Operators

;flag|Canada
*Air Canada
*Trans Canada Airlines;flag|France
*European Aero Service
*Inter Cargo Service;flag|Iceland
*Air Viking
*Thor Cargo;flag|Indonesia
*Angkasa Civil Air Transport
*Merpati Nusantara Airlines;flag|Lebanon
*Lebanese Air Transport;flag|Sweden
*Air Trader;flag|United Kingdom
*Air Bridge Carriers
*Air Trader
*British European Airways
*Hunting Cargo Airlines
*Invicta Air Transport

Aircraft on display

* Type 953C Merchantman "Superb" (Registration G-APEP)] at the Brooklands Museum, Surrey, England.

pecifications (Type 952)

aircraft specifications

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop

ref=

crew=2-3
capacity=139 passengers
length main=122 ft 10 in
length alt=37.50 m
span main=118 ft 7 in
span alt=36.10 m
height main=34 ft 11 in
height alt=10.60 m
area main=1,527 ft²
area alt=142 m²
empty weight main=82,500 lb
empty weight alt=37,421 kg
loaded weight main=141,000 lb
loaded weight alt=63,977 kg
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt= 64,410 kg in BEA service
engine (prop)=Rolls-Royce Tyne RTy.11 Mk 512
type of prop= turboprop
number of props=4
power main=5,545 hp
power alt= 4,700 shp, 4,135 kW

max speed main=425 mph
max speed alt=684 km/h
range main=1,830 miles
range alt=2,945 km
ceiling main=30,000 ft [Merchantman limited to 25,000 ft]
ceiling alt=9,145 m
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=92 lb/ft²
loading alt=450 kg/m²
power/mass main=0.16 hp/lb
power/mass alt=0.26 kW/kg

aircontent
related=

similar aircraft=

lists=

see also=

References

ee Also

*Lockheed L-188 Electra
*Ilyushin Il-18
*Bristol Britannia

External links

* [http://www.brooklandsmuseum.com Brooklands Motorsport and Aviation Museum]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vickers Vanguard — Vickers Vanguard …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Vickers Vanguard — Tipo 950 Vanguard Vickers Vanguard (G APEC) en el Aeropuerto de Londres Heathrow en 1965. Este avión fue fabricado en 1959 y se accidentó en 1971. Tipo Avión comercial …   Wikipedia Español

  • Vickers-Armstrong — Vickers Limited war ein 1828 gegründeter bedeutender britischer Maschinenbau und Rüstungskonzern. 1927 vereinigte er sich mit der Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth Company zu Vickers Armstrongs Ltd und wurde in den 1960er Jahren verstaatlicht. Teile… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Vickers Ltd. — Vickers Limited war ein 1828 gegründeter bedeutender britischer Maschinenbau und Rüstungskonzern. 1927 vereinigte er sich mit der Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth Company zu Vickers Armstrongs Ltd und wurde in den 1960er Jahren verstaatlicht. Teile… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Vickers Viscount — Vickers Viscount …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Vickers — Limited war ein 1828 gegründeter bedeutender britischer Maschinenbau und Rüstungskonzern. 1927 vereinigte er sich mit der Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth Co., Ltd. zu Vickers Armstrongs, Ltd. und wurde in den 1960er Jahren verstaatlicht. Teile des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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