Infobox Ethnic group
caption=Parayar School Children, Seithur near Rajapalayam
group = Paraiyar (or) Sambavar
poptime = 1,860,519 (2001 census)
popplace = Indian states of
Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Seychelles, Fiji
langs = Tamil
Hinduism, Atheism, Christianity
Tamil people, Dalit
Paraiyar also Parayar, Paraya, Pariah, or Sambavas are a
social groupfound in Kerala, Tamil Naduand in Sri Lanka. See Caste in Sri Lanka. The Indian census of 2001 reported the Paraiyar population to be 1,860,519. [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_tamilnadu.pdf (pdf)]
In archaic Tamil, the word "paRai" (பறை) meant "drum", often one used to make announcements. They are attested to in the earliest Tamil literature as bearers and players of the paRai, though it is impossible to tell whether it was an occupational or caste grouping. They are mentioned in late
Sangamera literature as a specialized group within the larger social groups associated with paRai (drum) playing for ceremonial and shamanistic purposes.
The modern Tamil/
Malayaleeword "Parai" means "to speak" or "to tell", deriving from the paRai's ancient use as an announcement device. Paraiyar denotes drum beaters as well as general agricultural laborers among Sri Lankan Tamils.
At one time, the paraiyar community was equal to upper caste. For many years, they were the rulers of south India and other parts of country.
Thiruvalluvar[http://books.google.com/books?id=Erin3nkU3ZUC&printsec=titlepage&dq=Castes+and+Tribes+of+Southern+India.&source=gbs_toc_s&cad=1#PPA82,M1] [http://www.escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft038n99hg&chunk.id=s1.4.11&toc.depth=1&toc.id=ch04&brand=eschol] [http://www.escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft038n99hg&chunk.id=s1.4.9&toc.depth=1&toc.id=ch04&brand=eschol] , the Tamil author of the Thirukkural, the great Tamil poetess Auvaiyar, and the architect of the classical city of Hastinapurhad all been Paraiyars. [http://www.escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft038n99hg&chunk.id=s1.4.9&toc.depth=1&toc.id=ch04&brand=eschol] This showed that in former times the Paraiyars occupied a much higher position than they did later. As the time passed, this community was defeated,Oppressed and became poor.
Nandanar(Tamil: நந்தனார் or திருநாளைப் போவார் நாயனார், Thirunalai Povar Nayanar) a Hindu Saivitesaint, One of the 63 Nayanmar, belongs to this Paraiyar community. In Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Paraiyars maintained many pre-Hindu beliefs unique to that area and era. Sudalai Madanis a deityassociated with this community.
Their spiritual life includes the knowledge of what are considered arcane mysteries, magic, rituals and beliefs. In consequence, members of the mainstream community consult Paraya shamans, or
Velathansin Kerala, for advice that is not otherwise accessible.
They are noted for their musicianship, craftsmanship and dance. Dances include
Kōlam-thullalor mask dance, part of their exorcism rituals, and the fertility dance Mudi-āttamor hair-dance.
Due to affirmative action in post-independence
Indiaand conversion to Christianity, some Paraiyars can be found in all walks of life, but in general they are still day laborers in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.
The situation got a little more stable in the northern parts of
Tamil Nadu, where Parayars turned out to get involved in politics and authoritative position in society. However they are still suppressed in some remote parts of southern Tamil Nadu, facing discrimination from the upper castes.
Iyothee ThassPandithar, founded the Sakya Buddhist Society (also known as Indian Buddhist Association).
Rettamalai Srinivasan, Freedom fighter.
Kakkan, Former Minister of Social Justice & Police, Tamilnadu
Thiruvalluvar, Legend, Celebrated Tamil Poet.
Auvaiyar,Celebrated Tamil Poetess.
Nandanar(நந்தனார் or "திருநாளைப் போவார் நாயனார்", "Thirunalai Povar Nayanar"), Hindu Saivitesaint, One of the 63 Nayanmar
Ilayaraja, Music Director, Tamil, Hindi and many Indian Films(also called "Music Maestro").
M. G. Pandithan, Founder & President of "Indian Progressive Front", former " Malaysian Indian Congress" vice-president, Member of Parliament for Tapah, Parliamentery secretary to the Trade and Industry Ministry, Malaysia.
Thirumavalavan, President, "Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi", political party. [(http://www.vck.in)] , [(http://www.thamizhmann.com)] .
A.Raja, Hon’ble Minister, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, India.
Parithi Ellamvazhuthi, Hon’ble Minister for Information, Tamilnadu.
Dalit Ezhilmalai, former Union Minister of State, Health and Family Welfare (Independent Charge), India.
Prof. Periyardasan, Tamil Scholar, Film Actor & follower of Periyar.
Sivamani, World famous Percussionist& Musician (Brand Ambassador for Xone- wirefree music)
Gangai Amaren, Director, Lyricist & Producer of Tamil Films (brother of Ilayaraja).
Deva, Music Director, Tamil and SouthIndian Films.
Srikanth Deva, Music Directorof Tamil Films (son of Deva).
Venkat Prabhu, Director of Tamil Films (son of Gangai Amaren).
Yuvan Shankar Raja, Music Directorof Tamil & Hindi Films (son of Ilayaraja).
Karthik Raja, Music Directorof Tamil Films (son of Ilayaraja).
Bavatharani, Playback Singerof Tamil Films (Daughter of Ilayaraja).
Dr.Poovai M.Moorthiyaar, M.A.,M.L.,Ph.D., Founder & President - "Puratchi Bharatham"(APLF)
Dr.Poovai M.Jegan Moorthiyaar, M.L.A., President, "Puratchi Bharatham"(APLF)
Er.Soma.Manirasa Paraiyar, B.E., State Organiser - "Puratchi Bharatham"(APLF)
Samuel Paraiyar- Leader, "Tamilnadu Paraiyar Peravai".
J.R.SamyM.LM., M.Phil, Director - "AREN TRUST" [Action for Rural Empowerment Network Trust] - an organisation working for the promotion of Paraiyar community. [(http://www.arenngo.webs.com)]
Indian caste system
*"Castes and Tribes of Southern India. Vol. VI. EdgarThurston and Rangachari, K. 1909."
*"Paraiyan and Legend of Nandan, by REV. A. C. Clayton, C Karunakara Menon"
* [http://www.jstor.org/pss/313071 Corruption and Redemption: The Legend of Valluvar and Tamil Literary History,Stuart Blackburn,Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2 (May, 2000), pp. 449-482 (article consists of 34 pages)Published by: Cambridge University Press ]
* [http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/view?docId=ft038n99hg&chunk.id=s1.4.11&toc.depth=1&toc.id=ch04&brand=eschol Dialogue and History Constructing South India,1795–1895, Eugene F.Irschick,UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS] ]
* [http://www.theologie.uni-hd.de/rm/online-artikel/bergunder-2004-contested-past.pdf Auvaiyar was identified as a Paraiyar in Tamil tradition (famous ancient Tamil writers, e.g., Auvaiyar; cf. Pope 1886:i–ii, x–xi). ...]
*www.theologie.uni-hd.de/rm/online-artikel/bergunder-2004-contested-past.pdf " [Page 70] "
* [http://www.shaivam.org/nanaalai.html SAINT NANDANAR]
* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~lkawgw/berava.htm The role of Berava Sorcerer or witchcraft]
* [http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:T-EqRtjTkfYJ:krpcds.org/report/vcv.pdf+Sambavar&hl=en&gl=ca&ct=clnk&cd=8 A Tamil Parayar village in transition]
* [http://www.dalits.org/PHTsunamikerala.htm Discrimination Against Dalits in Tsunami Relief and Rehabilitation in Kerala]
* [http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2008/stories/20030425000607500.htm Dalit struggle and a legend]
* [http://www.webindia123.com/KERALA/ARTS/semiclassicaldance0.htm Parayan Thullal a Kerala dance form where the dancer is covered in charcoal indicating his black color]
* [http://dalituniversity.org/ Paraiyar Education Fund]
* [http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~tamils/programme/lorr.html The Changing Fortunes of the Drummer in Medieval Tamilnadu]
* [http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1128 Paraiyars Ellaiyamman as an Iconic Symbol of Collective Resistance and Emancipatory Mythography]
* [http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0511559 Thirukkural was written by a Paraiyar called Valluvar]
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