- Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle
Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (
August 20 1517- September 21 1586) was a French statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantismin Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century". [Trevor-Roper, Hugh; "Princes and Artists, Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts 1517-1633", Thames & Hudson, London, 1976, p.112] He was also a notable art collector, the "greatest private collector of his time, the friend and patron of Titian and Leoni and many other artists". [ Trevor-Roper op & page cit]
He was born at
Besançon, now in France, then in the Imperial territory of the Franche-Comté. His father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle (1484—1550), afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, held an influential position in the Netherlands, and from 1530 until his death he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany. On the completion of his studies in law at Paduaand in divinity at Leuven, Antoine held a canonry at Besançon, but he was promoted to the bishopric of Arraswith a dispensation for his age of barely twenty-three (1540). He was ordained priest in 1540, and he was appointed Archbishop of Mechelenon 10 March 1561. On 14 November, 1584, he was appointed Archbishop of Besançon, France.
In his episcopal capacity he attended several diets of the empire, as well as the opening meetings of the
Council of Trent, which he addressed on behalf of Charles V; and the influence of his father, now chancellor, led to his being entrusted with many difficult and delicate pieces of public business, in the execution of which he developed a talent for diplomacy, and at the same time acquired an intimate acquaintance with most of the currents of European politics. He was involved in the settlement of the terms of peace after the defeat of the Schmalkaldic Leagueat the Battle of Mühlbergin 1547, a settlement in which, to say the least, some particularly sharp practice was exhibited. In 1550, he succeeded his father in the office of secretary of state; in this capacity he attended Charles in the war with Maurice of Saxony, accompanied him in the flight from Innsbruck, and afterwards drew up the Peace of Passau(August 1552).
In the following year he conducted the negotiations for the marriage of
Mary I of Englandand Philip II of Spain, to whom, in 1555, on the abdication of the emperor, he transferred his services, and by whom he was employed in the Netherlands. In April 1559 Granvelle was one of the Spanish commissioners who arranged the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis, and on Philip’s withdrawal from the Netherlands in August of the same year he was appointed prime minister to the regent, Margaret of Parma. The policy of repression which in this capacity he pursued during the next five years secured for him many tangible rewards: in 1560 he was elevated to the archiepiscopal see of Mechelen, and in 1561 he became a cardinal; but the growing hostility of a people whose religious convictions he had set himself to oppose ultimately made it impossible for him to continue in the Netherlands; and by the advice of his royal master he, in March 1564, retired to Franche Comté.
Nominally this withdrawal was only of a temporary character, but it proved to be final. The following six years were spent in comparative quiet, broken, however, by a visit to Rome in 1565; but in 1570, Granvelle, at the call of Philip, resumed public life by accepting another mission to Rome. Here he helped to arrange the alliance between the Papacy, Venice and Spain against the Turks, an alliance which was responsible for the victory of Lepanto. In the same year he became viceroy of
Naples, a post of some difficulty and danger, which for five years he occupied with ability and success. He was summoned to Madridin 1575 by Philip II to be president of the council for Italian affairs. Among the more delicate negotiations of his later years were those of 1580, which had for their object the ultimate union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1584, which resulted in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish infanta Catherine to Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy. In the same year he was made archbishop of Besançon, but meanwhile he had been stricken with a lingering disease; he was never enthroned, but died at Madrid in 1586. His body was taken to Besançon, where his father had been buried.
Collector of art
Granvelle had a famous art collection, which partly featured the favourite artists of his Habsburg patrons, such as
Titianand Leone Leoni, but also included a number of works by Pieter Brueghel, as well as a significant collection inherited from his father. Brueghel's friend, the sculptor Jacques Jonghelinck(brother of Brueghel's biggest patron) had a studio on Granvelle's palace in Brussels. Whilst in the Netherlands, he "discovered" Antonis Morand introduced him to the Madrid court, and he also patronised Giambolognaand arranged his first visit to Italy. At his death the collection was inherited by his nephew, who was pressured by Rudolf IIthe very acquisitive Austrian Habsburg Emperor to sell the finest pieces to him, which in 1597 he very relctantly did, protesting that the price offered for thirty-three works was not enough even for six, and less than he had recently refused from Cardinal Farnesefor Dürer's "Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand" alone. The arrangements were handled by Hans von Aachen. Most of these pieces are now in Vienna or Madrid, including Titian's "Venus with an organ-player", Giambologna's copy of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, tapestries after Hieronymus Boschand a bust of Charles V by Leoni. [Trevor-Roper, Hugh; "Princes and Artists, Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts 1517-1633", Thames & Hudson, London, 1976, p.112]
Though he was painted by Titian (Kansas) and Mor, more famous than any portrait of Granvelle himself is the portrait of his dwarf and his
mastiffby Mor ( Louvre[http://cartelen.louvre.fr/cartelen/visite?srv=obj_view_obj&objet=cartel_8163_10811_p0005735.001.jpg_obj.html&
] ), which perhaps initiated the Spanish tradition of portraits of court dwarves. The Flemish
Renaissance humanist Justus Lipsiuswas Granvelle's secretary for a period in Rome. He also corresponded with the composers Lassusand Adrian Willaert[ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0306-1078%28199808%2926%3A3%3C432%3AOSDAMC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage JSTOR] ] He had a magnificent library, some of which remains at Besançon.
* [http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/bishop/bgranv.html Antoine Perrenot Cardinal de Granvella]
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Antoine Perrenot — Granvelle, Portrait von Antonio Moro (1549) Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (* 20. August 1517 in Besançon; † 21. September 1586 in Madrid), der älteste Sohn Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelles, war Kardinal und spielte als Minister eine wichtige Rolle… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de — ▪ Spanish cardinal born Aug. 20, 1517, Besançon, France died Sept. 21, 1586, Madrid minister of King Philip II of Spain; he played a major role in the early stages of the Netherlands revolt (Eighty Years War) against Philip s rule.… … Universalium
GRANVELLE, Antoine Perrenot de — (1517–1586) Roman Catholiccardinal, diplomat, and politician in the service of Holy Ro man emperor Charles V of Habsburg. After the departure of King Philip II from the Netherlands to Spain in 1559, Granvelle became one of the most influential … Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands