Politics of Vanuatu

Politics of Vanuatu

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The politics of Vanuatu take place within the framework of a constitutional democracy. The constitution provides for a representative parliamentary system. The head of the Republic is an elected President, but the Prime Minister of Vanuatu is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Vanuatu has a multi-party system of government. Government and society in Vanuatu tend to divide along linguistic — French and English — lines. Forming coalition governments, however, has proved problematic at times, owing to differences between English and French speakers.


Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Iolu Abil Vanua'aku Pati 2 September 2009
Prime Minister Sato Kilman People's Progress Party 26 June 2011

The constitution created a republican political system headed by a president who has primarily ceremonial powers and is elected by a two-thirds majority in an electoral college consisting of members of Parliament and the presidents of Regional Councils. The president serves a 5-year term. The president may be removed by the electoral college for gross misconduct or incapacity. The prime minister, who is the head of government, is elected by an absolute majority of the Parliament. The prime minister in turn appoints the Council of Ministers, whose number may not exceed a quarter of the number of parliamentary representatives. The prime minister and the Council of Ministers constitute the executive government.

Legislative branch

Parliament or Parlement has 52 members, elected for a four year term in multi-seat constituencies. The president is elected for a five year term by the parliament. Parliament normally sits for a 4-year term unless dissolved by majority vote of a three-fourths quorum or a directive from the President on the advice of the prime minister. The national Council of Chiefs, called the Malvatu Mauri and elected by district councils of chiefs, advises the government on all matters concerning ni-Vanuatu culture and language.

Political parties and elections

Judicial branch

The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and up to three other judges. Two or more members of this court may constitute a Court of Appeal. Magistrate courts handle most routine legal matters. The legal system is based on British and French law. The constitution also provides for the establishment of village or island courts presided over by chiefs to deal with questions of customary law.

Political conditions

Government and society in Vanuatu tend to divide along linguistic--French and English--lines. Historically, English-speaking politicians such as Walter Lini, Donald Kalpokas, and other leaders of the Vanua'aku Pati favored early independence, whereas French-speaking political leaders favored continuing association with the colonial administrators, particularly France.

On the eve of independence in 1980, Jimmy Stevens' Nagriamel movement, in alliance with private French interests, declared the island of Espiritu Santo independent of the new government. Following independence, Vanuatu requested assistance from Papua New Guinea, whose forces restored order on Santo. From then until 1991, the Vanua'aku Pati and its predominantly English-speaking leadership controlled the Vanuatu Government.

In December 1991, and following a split in the Vanua'aku Pati, Maxime Carlot Korman, leader of the Francophone Union of Moderate Parties (UMP), was elected Vanuatu's first Francophone prime minister. He formed a coalition government with Walter Lini's breakaway VP faction, now named the National United Party (NUP).

Following parliamentary elections on November 30, 1995, Carlot Korman was succeeded by Serge Vohor, a dissident UMP leader. Over the next 2 years, government leadership changed several times due to unstable coalitions within the Parliament. In November 1997, the President dissolved Parliament. Following the subsequent election on March 6, 1998, Donald Kalpokas, the leader of the Vanua'aku Pati, was elected prime minister. A vote of no confidence in November 1999 brought Barak Sopé to the fore as Prime Minister. Yet another vote of no confidence resulted in the selection of Edward Natapei as Prime Minister in March 2001. Edward Natapei returned as Prime Minister in the May 2002 national parliamentary elections. In 2004, Natapei dissolved parliament, and following another national election in July of that year, Vohor became Prime Minister again when two members of the Vanu'aku Party defected to join a new coalition. Vohor is under heavy fire by the Parliament for establishing diplomatic relation without consulting the Parliament and its Council of Minister decided to revoke such relation and as a signature move, remove the flag of Republic of China displayed in the capitol. A Motion of No Confidence was called by the Parliament, and on December 11, Vohor was replaced as Prime Minister by Ham Lini.

In March 2004 the term of office of President John Bani expired, and Alfred Maseng Nalo was elected in his place. It was soon discovered that Nalo was a criminal and, at the time of his election, was serving a two year suspended sentence for aiding and abetting, misappropriation, and receiving money dishonestly after money from the sale of cocoa went missing. Had his conviction been known at the time of the election, Nalo's candidature would automatically have been invalid. The electoral commission which supervises candidates and conducts background checks on candidates did not detect the conviction because the police-issued certificate of previous offences had allegedly been completed incorrectly (Port Vila Presse Online, 28 April 2004). Nalo refused to resign, but the Supreme Court ordered his removal from office in May 2004, and the decision was subsequently confirmed by the Court of Appeal.

Following the 2008 parliamentary elections, the governing coalition was maintained, but Ham Lini was replaced as prime minister by Edward Natapei.


  • Andreas Holtz: Nation-Building und die Frage nach Souveränität im Südpazifik vor dem Hintergrund der politischen Geschichte der Republik Vanuatu. Münster/Hamburg/London 2003. ISBN 3-8258-6413-8. (German)

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