James W. Black


James W. Black

Sir James Whyte Black, OM, FRS, FRSE, FRCP (born 14 July 1924) is a Scottish doctor and pharmacologist who invented Propranolol, synthesized Cimetidine and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988 for these discoveries.cite web | author=Tore Frängsmyr | title=Sir James W. Black: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine | url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1988/black-autobio.html | work=Les Prix Nobel | publisher=Nobel Foundation | date=1989 | accessdate=2007-08-25]

Early life and education

Black was educated at Beath High School, Cowdenbeath, Fife, Scotland, and the University of St Andrews, Fife, where he studied medicine, spending time in Dundee (where all the clinical medical activity of St Andrews' University took place until 1967). He joined the Physiology department at the University of St Andrews before taking a lecturer position at the University of Malaya.

Career

Upon his return to Scotland in 1950, he joined the University of Glasgow (Veterinary School) where he established the Physiology Department. During his career he worked in both industry and academia. He was employed by ICI Pharmaceuticals (1958-1964), Smith, Kline and French (1964-1973) and the Wellcome Foundation (1978-1984) and was appointed professor of pharmacology at University College London (1973-1978) and King's College London (1984-1992).

Scientific and clinical contributions

Sir James Black contributed to basic scientific and clinical knowledge in cardiology, both as a physician and as a basic scientist. His invention of propranolol the beta adrenergic receptor antagonist that revolutionized the medical management of angina pectoris, is considered to be one of the most important contributions to clinical medicine and pharmacology of the 20th century.cite web | year=1997| url=http://texasheart.org/Education/THIJournal/SIRJAMES.cfm | author=Melanie Patricia Stapleton | title=Sir James Black and Propranolol | publisher=Texas Heart Institute Journal ] cite web | year=2005| url=http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/83/8325/8325tagamet.html | title="anTAGonist" and "ciMETidine" | publisher=American Chemical Society | accessmonthday=December 25 | accessyear=2005] His method of research, his discoveries about adrenergic pharmacology, and his clarification of the mechanisms of cardiac action are all strengths of his work.cite web | year=2004| url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20040125/ai_n9627859 | author=Alan Taylor | title=Or is this our national hero? | publisher=Sunday Herald | accessmonthday=January 25 | accessyear=2004]

Other offices

Sir James was the Chancellor of the University of Dundee between 1992 and May 2006. In August 2006, the Sir James Black Centre was officially incorporated into the College of Life Sciences at the university.

Honours and awards

He was created a Knight Bachelor in 1981. In 2000 Sir James was appointed to the Order of Merit by Queen Elizabeth II.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1976 and the same year he was awarded the Lasker award.cite web | year=1976| url=http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/library/1976clinical.shtml | title=1976 winners: Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research | publisher=Lasker Medical Research Network] In 1979, he was awarded the Artois-Baillet Latour Health Prize.

ee also

*George H. Hitchings and Gertrude B. Elion - joint recipients of the 1988 Nobel prize in Medicine

References


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