Kendal Auld Grey Town
View over the rooftops of Kendal
Kendal shown within Cumbria
Population 27,505 (2001) OS grid reference - London 223 miles (358.9 km) SSE Parish Kendal District South Lakeland Shire county Cumbria Region North West Country England Sovereign state United Kingdom Post town KENDAL Postcode district LA9 Dialling code 01539 Police Cumbria Fire Cumbria Ambulance North West EU Parliament North West England UK Parliament Westmorland and Lonsdale List of places: UK • England • Cumbria
Kendal, anciently known as Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish within the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. It is 40 miles (64 km) south of Carlisle, on the River Kent, and has a total resident population of 27,505, making it the third largest settlement in Cumbria, behind Carlisle and Barrow in Furness.
Historically a part of Westmorland, Kendal today is known largely as a centre for tourism, as the home of Kendal mint cake, and as a producer of pipe tobacco and tobacco snuff. Its buildings, mostly constructed with the local grey limestone, have earned it the nickname the Auld Grey Town.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Economy
- 5 Transport
- 6 Education
- 7 Places of interest
- 8 Notable people
- 9 Kendal dialect
- 10 Kendal Mountain Search & Rescue Team
- 11 Twin towns
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Kendal is listed in the Domesday Book as part of Yorkshire with the name Cherchbi. For many centuries it was called Kirkbie Kendal, meaning "village with a church in the valley of the River Kent". The earliest castle was a Norman motte and bailey (now located on the west side of the town) when the settlement went under the name of Kirkbie Strickland
A chartered market town, the centre of Kendal is structured around a high street with fortified alleyways, known locally as yards, off to either side which allowed the local population to seek shelter from the Anglo-Scottish raiding parties known as the Border Reivers. The main industry in these times was the manufacture of woollen goods, the importance of which is reflected in the town's coat of arms and in its Latin motto "Pannus mihi panis", meaning wool (literally 'cloth') is my bread. "Kendal Green" was hard-wearing wool-based fabric specific to the local manufacturing process, and was supposedly sported by the Kendalian archers who were instrumental in the English victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt. Kendal Green was also worn by slaves in the Americas, and is mentioned in songs and literature from that time.
The site of several (ruined) castles, the most recent one constructed in the late-12th century, Kendal Castle, has a long history as a stronghold of one kind or another. The castle is best known for being the home of the Parr family. The Parr's inherited the castle through marriage during the reign of Edward III of England. Rumours still circulate that King Henry VIII's sixth wife Catherine Parr was born at Kendal Castle, but based on the evidence available this is very unlikely. By the time Catherine was born the castle was beyond disrepair and her father was already based in Blackfriars, London, as a member of the court of King Henry VIII.
Kendal Mint Cake
Kendal is known for Kendal mint cake, a glucose-based type of confectionery reputedly discovered accidentally by Joseph Wiper during his search for a clear glacier mint.
Used on numerous expeditions to mountaintops (including Mount Everest and K2) and both poles of the Earth, its popularity is mainly due to the very astute decision of the original manufacturer's great nephew to market it as an energy food, and to supply Ernest Shackleton's 1914-17 Transarctic Expedition.
By the time the business was sold to competitor Romney's in 1987 there were several rival mint cake producers, many of which are still in business.
Tobacco and snuff
Snuff production in Kendal dates from 1792, when Kendalian Thomas Harrison returned from Glasgow, Scotland, where he had learned the art of snuff manufacture. He also brought with him 50 tons of second-hand equipment, all carried on horse back. Pipe tobacco and other tobacco products were subsequently added to the firm's production. Ownership of his firm passed eventually to his son-in-law, Samuel Gawith, whose eponymic firm, Samuel Gawith & Co., continues in business to this day. Following Samuel Gawith's death in 1865, the firm passed into the hands of his two eldest sons. During this time the business was administered initially by trustees, including Henry Hoggarth, and John Thomas Illingworth.
Illingworth left the firm in 1867 to start his own firm, which remained in business until the 1980s. The youngest son of Samuel Gawith the First subsequently teamed with Henry Hoggarth to form Gawith Hoggarth TT, Ltd. Both Samuel Gawith & Company and Gawith Hoggarth TT continue in business today in Kendal, producing snuffs and tobacco products still used around the world. Samuel Gawith and Company also hold the distinction of employing the oldest piece of industrial equipment still in production use in the world, a device manufactured in the 1750s.
The municipal borough of Kendal was created in 1835 and until 1894 the town was also an urban sanitary district. The borough boundaries were altered in 1935 by gaining a small part of South Westmorland Rural District under a County Review Order.
The civil parishes of Kirkland and Nether Graveship were abolished in 1908 and became part of Kendal Civil Parish whose boundaries were after that the same as the borough.
The borough of Kendal was abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 to become a part of South Lakeland district of Cumbria. The town was a successor parish, and thus kept its own town council.
Kendal stands on the River Kent, surrounded by low hills. It is near (but not in) the Lake District National Park. When the National Park was formed in 1951 the boundary was deliberately shaped to exclude Kendal. Although a relatively small town, it is an important commercial centre for a wide area thanks to its rural location. It is affectionately referred to as "The Gateway to The Lakes".
Burneside Underbarrow and Bradleyfield Sedbergh Kendal Oxenholme
Kendal's early prosperity was based largely on cloth manufacture. In the 19th century it became a centre for the manufacture of snuff and shoes; the K Shoes company remained a major employer in the town until its factory closed in 2003.  There are still a number of industries based in the town, such as Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon (manufacturers of pumps and turbines), James Cropper paper makers,based in Burneside, just NW of Kendal, Mardix (switchgear) and Heinz, who have a facility making baby milk in the north of the town. Though tourism is now one of the main employers, there is a significant IT and design sector in the town (this being non-geographic dependent) the increase of broadband availability has significantly increased this.
On February 26, 2003, Kendal was granted Fairtrade Town status.
Kendal railway station is situated on the Windermere Branch Line and gives connections to Windermere railway station to the north, and Oxenholme Lake District railway station (on the West Coast Main Line) and Lancaster railway station to the south.
Kendal is around 8 miles (12 km) from the M6 motorway, and is bypassed on the west by the A591 road, linking it to Windermere, Keswick and the A590 leading to Barrow, as well as being the terminus of the A65 road to Kirkby Lonsdale and a destination on the A6 road to Penrith. Kendal is signposted off the M6 at Junctions 36 (A65, A590), Junction 37 (A684 road), Junction 38 (A685 road) and Junction 39 (A6). The three-mile £1.9m A591 bypass opened on August 29, 1971.
The Lancaster Canal was built as far as Kendal in 1819, but the northern section was rendered unnavigable by the construction of the M6. Part of this section was also drained and filled in to prevent leakage, and the course of the canal through Kendal has now been developed. The canal towpath, however, remains as a footpath through Kendal. A campaign is currently underway to restore the canal as far as Kendal.
Kendal is served by a long distance coach service from London (once per day) and local buses run from the bus station to destinations such as Ambleside and Barrow in Furness.
Kirkbie Kendal School, formerly known as Kendal Grammar School, is a Secondary School Business and Enterprise College that serves the area around the town and rural countryside. Kirkbie Kendal School operates as a Foundation school; its previous students include the historian David Starkey and Clinical Psychologist Vanessa Jones.
There are numerous Primary Schools in the area, including Castle Park, Stramongate School, Heron Hill, Ghyllside, Vicarage Park, St Thomas's and Dean Gibson. In the nearby village of Natland, there is St Marks School.
Places of interest
- Kendal Museum - one of the oldest in the country, it includes exhibits on area history, culture, archaeology, geology, local and world natural history, Roman Britain, Ancient Egypt
- Abbot Hall Art Gallery (housed in a Georgian villa, it mounts nationally important exhibitions, such as David Bomberg: Spirit in the Mass (17 July - 28 October 2006). Permanent collection includes George Romney, JMW Turner, John Ruskin, Ben Nicholson, Paula Rego, Lucian Freud, Stanley Spencer and Barbara Hepworth.
- Museum of Lakeland Life
- Castle Howe, Kendal’s undisputed first castle, lies on the hill side overlooking the town. The earthwork remains are sandwiched between Gilling Gate and Beast Banks
- Kendal Castle, to the east of the earthworks, probably built while Castle Howe was still being used
- Friends' Meeting House, home of the Quaker Tapestry
- The Brewery Arts Centre (offering theatre, dance, exhibitions, cinemas, music, workshops, youth drama, dance and food and drink)
- Staff of Life bakery with fresh tasty bread
- Kendal Leisure Centre
- Kendal Parish Church (Holy Trinity)
- Lakeland Radio Stadium official football ground of Kendal Town F.C.
- Netherfield Cricket Club Ground - home ground of Netherfield Cricket Club and Cumberland County Cricket Club
The following is a list of people who either were born in Kendal or have significant contacts with Kendal:
- David Starkey, Historian,Tudor period
- Desmond Bagley, Thriller writer
- Jonathan Dodgson Carr, founder of Carrs Breadmakers and social reform campaigner
- John Cunliffe, creator of Postman Pat
- John Dalton, Chemist and Physicist
- Sir Arthur Eddington, Astrophysicist
- James Ellison, British Superbikes rider
- Ken Major (1928–2009), architect, author and molinologist, attended Kendal School
- George Romney, portrait painter
- Keith Stainton, politician and WW2 hero in France
- Alfred Wainwright, Guidebook author and walker
- Wild Beasts, indie-rock band
- Keith Wilkinson, ITV television news reporter
- John Wilson, mathematician and astronomer
- Yan, Hamilton and Wood of the indie-rock band British Sea Power – raised in Natland, a nearby village.
- Steve Hogarth, vocalist of rock band Marillion
- Steven Hall, Britain's Got Talent Finalist 2011 - Comedy Dancer.
The Kendal dialect known as Kendalian, is a variant of the Cumbrian dialect spoken around the Kendal area.
Kendal Mountain Search & Rescue Team
Kendal has for many years maintained a voluntary Mountain Search & Rescue Team based at Busher Walk. They have performed numerous rescues around the Kendal area, and along with other local Mountain Rescue teams, helped at the Grayrigg derailment.
Kendal is twinned with:
- Kendal Mountain Festival
- Kendal Town F.C.
- ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Parish Headcounts : South Lakeland Retrieved 2009-11-22
- ^ Mills, A.D., Dictionary of English Place Names, Oxford University Press, 1998
- ^ Linda Porter. Katherine, the Queen, MacMillan, 2010. pg 21.
- ^ Tim Farren "TheyWorkForYou" listing
- ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/1400721.stm BBC NEWS | More schools get specialist status
- ^ Kendal - Castle Howe
Ceremonial county of Cumbria Cumbria Portal Boroughs or districts Major settlementsAlston • Ambleside • Appleby-in-Westmorland • Aspatria • Barrow-in-Furness • Bowness-on-Windermere • Brampton • Broughton-in-Furness • Carlisle • Cleator Moor • Cockermouth • Dalton-in-Furness • Egremont • Grange-over-Sands • Harrington • Kendal • Keswick • Kirkby Lonsdale • Kirkby Stephen • Longtown • Maryport • Millom • Penrith • Sedbergh • Silloth • Ulverston • Whitehaven • Wigton • Windermere • Workington
See also: List of civil parishes in Cumbria
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Kendal — … Wikipedia Español
Kendal — green Ken dal green , or Kendal Ken dal A cloth colored green by dye obtained from the woad waxen, formerly used by Flemish weavers at Kendal, in Westmoreland, England. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants). [1913 Webster] How couldst thou know these men … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Kendal — (spr. Kend l), 1) (Kirkby in K.), Stadt in der englischen Grafschaft Westmoreland am Ken u. der Eisenbahn von Carlisle nach Lancaster, die sich nach dem Binnensee Windermere abzweigt; auch beginnt hier der Lancaster Kendal Kanal; gothische Kirche … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Kendal — (Kirkby in K., spr. körbi ), Stadt (municipal borough) in der engl. Grafschaft Westmorland, im anmutigen Tal des Kent, mit schönem Stadthaus, alter, fünfschiffiger Hauptkirche, alter Lateinschule, naturwissenschaftlichem Museum, Theater und… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Kendal — (spr. kenndĕl), Fabrikstadt in der engl. Grafsch Westmoreland, am Kent, (1901) 14.183 E … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Kendal — (–däll), Kirby K., engl. Stadt in der Grafschaft Westmoreland, 33000 E., lebhaftem Gewerbsfleiße u. Handel … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
kendal — green woolen cloth, late 14c., from place name in Westmoreland where it was manufactured. The place so called for being in the dale of the River Kent … Etymology dictionary
Kendal — 54.328611111111 2.7436111111111 Koordinaten: 54° 20′ N, 2° 45′ W … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kendal — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Pour l’article homophone, voir Kendall. Kendal est un nom propre. Patronyme Felicity Kendal (née en 1946), actrice britannique ; Toponyme … Wikipédia en Français
Kendal — 1 Original name in latin Kendal Name in other language Kendal, Kendall, Кендал State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 54.32681 latitude 2.74757 altitude 55 Population 29468 Date 2011 01 29 2 Original name in latin Kendal Name in… … Cities with a population over 1000 database