Transgene


Transgene

A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.

In its most precise usage, the term "transgene" describes a segment of DNA containing a gene sequence that has been isolated from one organism and is introduced into a different organism. This non-native segment of DNA may retain the ability to produce RNA or protein in the transgenic organism, or it may alter the normal function of the transgenic organism's genetic code. In general, the DNA is incorporated into the organism's germ line. For example, in higher vertebrates this can be accomplished by injecting the foreign DNA into the nucleus of a fertilized ovum. This technique is routinely used to introduce human disease genes or other genes of interest into strains of laboratory mice to study the function or pathology involved with that particular gene.

In looser usage, transgene can describe any DNA sequence, regardless of whether it contains a gene coding sequence or it has been artificially constructed, which has been introduced into an organism or vector construct in which it was previously not found.

In practical terms, a transgene can be either a cDNA (complementary DNA) segment, which is a copy of mRNA (messenger RNA), or the gene itself residing in its original region of genomic DNA. The difference between these two lies in the fact that the cDNA has been processed to remove introns and also, usually, does not include the regulatory signals that are embedded around and in the gene. The advent of annotated cloned regions of the genome alongside the genome sequence, in particular as large clones in BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes) or fosmids, and recombineering, which is the method that permits the engineering of these large clones, has changed the practice of transgenesis from its origins with cDNA-based constructs towards the more reliable genomic-based constructs.

ee also

*Genetic engineering
*Genetically-modified organism
*Transgenic plant
*Chimera (genetics)
*Gene pool
*Gene flow
*Introgression
*Hybridization


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  • Transgène — Un transgène est la séquence isolée d un gène, transférée d un organisme à un autre, lors de la mise en œuvre de la transgénèse. Cette modification peut altérer le comportement génétique de l organisme (p. ex. production d une nouvelle protéine) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • transgene — transgenas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Genas, išskirtas iš vieno organizmo ir perkeltas į kitą organizmą ar ląstelę genų inžinerijos metodu. atitikmenys: angl. transgene rus. трансген …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • transgene — An isolated gene sequence used to transform an organism. Often, but not always, the transgene has been derived from a different species than that of the recipient …   Glossary of Biotechnology

  • transgene — noun Date: 1984 a gene that is taken from the genome of one organism and introduced into the genome of another organism by artificial techniques …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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  • transgene — trans·gene (trănsʹjēn , trănzʹ ) n. A gene used in in transgenesis. * * * …   Universalium


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