name = Parsnip
image_width = 250px
image_caption = A selection of parsnips
divisio = Magnoliophyta
genus = "
species = "P. sativa"
binomial = "Pastinaca sativa"
binomial_authority = L. [cite web
title=Pastinaca sativa information from NPGS/GRIN
The parsnip ("Pastinaca sativa") is a
root vegetablerelated to the carrot. Parsnips resemble carrots, but are paler than most of them and have a stronger flavor. Like carrots, parsnips are native to Eurasia and have been eaten there since ancient times. Zohary and Hopf note that the archeological evidence for the cultivation of the parsnip is “still rather limited,” and that Greek and Roman literary sources are a major source about its early use, but warn "there are some difficulties in distinguishing between parsnip and carrot (which, in Roman times, were white or purple) in classical writings since both vegetables seem to have been sometimes called "pastinaca" yet each vegetable appears to be well under cultivation in Roman times." [Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, "Domestication of plants in the Old World", third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 203]
potatoarrived from the New World, its place in dishes was occupied by the parsnip and other root vegetables such as the turnip. Parsnips can be boiled, roasted or used in stews, soups and casseroles. In some cases, the parsnip is boiled and the solid portions are removed from the soup or stew, leaving behind a more subtle flavour than the whole root and contributing starchto thicken the dish. Roasted parsnip is considered an essential part of Christmas dinnerin some parts of the English-speaking world and frequently features in the traditional Sunday Roast. Parsnips can also be fried, or be eaten raw.
The parsnip originates in the Mediterranean region and originally was the size of a baby carrot when full grown. When the Roman Empire expanded north through Europe the Romans brought the parsnip with them. They found that the parsnip grew bigger the further north they went.
folk etymologysometimes assumes the name is a portmanteauof parsleyand turnip, it actually comes from a Latinword for "forked", plus the -nip ending because it was assumed to be a kind of turnip. It is among the closest relatives of actual parsley, which actually can be bred to develop a very parsnip-like root.
Parsnips are not grown in warm climates, since frost is necessary to develop their flavor. The parsnip is a favorite with gardeners in areas with short growing seasons. Sandy,
loamy soil is preferred; silty, clay, and rocky soils are unsuitable as they produce short forked roots.
Seeds can be planted in early spring, as soon as the ground can be worked. Harvesting can begin in late fall after the first frost, and continue through winter until the ground freezes over.
More than almost any other vegetable seed, parsnip seed significantly deteriorates in viability if stored for long, so it is advisable to use fresh seed each year.
In Roman times, parsnips were believed to be an
United States, this plant was introduced fairly early in history by British colonists as a root vegetable. It was thereafter replaced in popularity by the potatoin the mid-nineteenth century and consequently escaped from cultivation, so today most states have wild parsnip on their list of noxious weedsor invasive species.
Parsnip is used as a food plant by the
larvae of some " Lepidoptera" species, including its namesake, the Parsnip swallowtailand also the Common Swift, Garden Dart, and Ghost Moth.
The parsnip is richer in
vitamins and minerals than its close relative the carrot. It is particularly rich in potassiumwith 600 mg per 100 g. The parsnip is also a good source of dietary fiber. 100 g of parsnip contains 55 calories (230 kJ) energy.
Some people can have an allergic reaction to parsnip, and parsnip leaves may irritate the skin.
Dangers connected to wild parsnips
Wild parsnip causes
phytophotodermatitis[ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1343418 Phytophotodermatitis associated with parsnip picking] ] and must be handled with full-body protection. If your skin is exposed to wild parsnip you must go inside within the next 10 minutes and stay there for 6-8 hours. Skin will not be affected by artificial light.
When picking wild vegetables it is easy to mistake poison hemlock ("Conium maculatum") for parsnip with deadly results. All parts of this hemlock are poisonous: leaves, stem, roots, and fruit. Poison hemlock contains volatile alkaloids that have been used as poisons since ancient times. The best way to differentiate it from parsnip are purple streaks and blotches on a smooth hairless stem. Other ways include the small wispy flowers and fernlike leaves which vary slightly from those on the parsnip.
D.G. Hessayon(2003) "The Vegetable & Herb Expert". Expert Books. ISBN 0-903505-46-0
*Dr. Mary Robson (1999) "Poison Hemlock : Dangerous to People and Animals". Washington State University Online Directory
*Adam Hart-Davis (2001) "What did the Romans do for us?". BBC TV
* [http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PASA2 "Pastinaca sativa" profile] on the USDA [http://plants.usda.gov/ plants database]
* [http://www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Pastinaca_sativa_page.html "Pastinaca sativa" profile] on [http://www.missouriplants.com missouriplants.com]
* [http://dmoz.org/Home/Cooking/Fruits_and_Vegetables/Parsnips/ Recipes with parsnips]
* [http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=702 "Pastinaca sativa" List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's)]
* [http://homecooking.about.com/library/archive/blparsnip.htm Parsnip Recipes]
* [http://www.hugs.org/parsnipdex.shtml Parsnip Recipe Index]
* [http://homecooking.about.com/cs/vegetables/a/parsnip.htm Recipes and cooking instructions]
* [http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/2267/parsnip.html Lu's Recipe Extravaganza, Pondering Parsnips?]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/database/curriedparsnipandapp_70821.shtml Curried Parsnip and Apple soup]
* [http://www.allotment.org.uk/recipe/369/deep-fried-parsnips-recipe/ Fried parsnips]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Parsnip — Pars nip (p[aum]rs n[i^]p), n. [OE. parsnepe, from a French form, fr. L. pastinaca; cf. pastinare to dig up, pastinum a kind of dibble; cf. OF. pastenade, pastenaque.] (Bot.) The aromatic and edible spindle shaped root of the cultivated form of… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
parsnip — (n.) 16c., parsnepe, corruption (by influence of Middle English nepe turnip ) of M.E. passenep (late 14c.), from O.Fr. pasnaie, from L. pastinaca parsnip, carrot, from pastinum two pronged fork (related to pastinare to dig up the ground ) so… … Etymology dictionary
parsnip — ► NOUN ▪ the long tapering cream coloured root of a plant of the parsley family, eaten as a vegetable. ORIGIN Old French pasnaie, from Latin pastinaca; the change in ending was influenced by NEEP(Cf. ↑N) … English terms dictionary
parsnip — [pärs′nip΄] n. [ME pasnepe, altered (infl. by nepe, turnip) < OFr pasnaie < L pastinaca < pastinare, to dig up < pastinum, two forked dibble] 1. a biennial plant (Pastinaca sativa) of the umbel family, with yellow flowers and a long,… … English World dictionary
parsnip — /pahr snip/, n. 1. a plant, Pastinaca sativa, cultivated varieties of which have a large, whitish, edible root. 2. the root of this plant. [1350 1400; earlier pars(e)nep, pass(e)nep, ME pas(t)nep(e) < L past(inaca) parsnip ( … Universalium
parsnip — UK [ˈpɑː(r)snɪp] / US [ˈpɑrsnɪp] noun [countable/uncountable] Word forms parsnip : singular parsnip plural parsnips a long white hard vegetable that grows under the ground … English dictionary
parsnip — noun a) A biennial plant, Pastinaca sativa, related to the carrot. b) The root of the parsnip, when used as a vegetable … Wiktionary
parsnip — pars|nip [ parsnıp ] noun count or uncount a long white hard vegetable that grows under the ground … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
parsnip —  The Romans called the ‘parsnip’ (and the ‘carrot’) pastināca. This was a derivative of pastinum, a term for a sort of small two pronged fork, inspired no doubt by the forked appearance of some examples of the vegetable. In Old French the… … The Hutchinson dictionary of word origins
parsnip — [[t]pɑ͟ː(r)snɪp[/t]] parsnips N COUNT A parsnip is a long cream coloured root vegetable … English dictionary