- Five articles of Remonstrance
The Five Articles of Remonstrance were given by followers of
Jacobus Arminiuswho, ironically, did not want to adopt Arminius' name, instead choosing to call themselves the " Remonstrants".
Forty-one preachers and the two leaders of the
Leydenstate college for the education of preachers met in The Hagueon 14 Jan 1610, to state in written form their views concerning all disputed doctrines. The document in the form of a was drawn up by Jan Uytenbogaert and after a few changes was endorsed and signed by all in July.
The Remonstrants did not reject
confessionand catechism, but did not acknowledge them as permanent and unchangeable canons of faith. They ascribed authority only to the word of Godin Holy Scriptureand were averse to all formalism. They also maintained that the secular authorities have the right to interfere in theological disputes to preserve peace and prevent schisms in the Church.
The Five Articles of Remonstrance were subject to review by the National
Synodheld in the Dutch city of Dordrechtin 1618 - 1619. At the time, Dordrecht was often referred to in English as Dort. The judgements of the Synod are known as The Canons of Dort, or Canons of Dordrecht. These Canons set forth what is often referred to as the Five Points of Calvinism, commonly denoted "TULIP": total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, and perseverance of the saints(once saved, always saved).
The Five Articles
The Five Articles of Remonstrance contrast with the
Five Points of Calvinismon four points and agree on one point (namely, total depravity). Article I disagrees that election into Christ is unconditional. Rather, in this article the Remonstrants assert that election is conditional upon faith in Christ, and that God elects to salvation those He knows beforehand will have faith in Him. Article II espouses unlimited atonement, the concept that Christ died for all. This stands in contrast to the limited atonement of Calvinism, which asserts that Christ only died for those God chooses to be saved. Article III affirms the total depravityof man, that man cannot save himself. Article IV repudiates the Calvinistic concept of irresistible grace, contending that mankind has the free will to resist God's grace. Article V casts doubt on the traditional understanding of the perseverance of the saints, leaning toward the opinion that preservation of the saints is conditional upon the believer remaining in Christ. The text of the articles is given below.
*Article I - That God, by an eternal, unchangeable purpose in
Jesus Christ, his Son, before the foundation of the world, hath determined, out of the fallen, sinful race of men, to save in Christ, for Christ's sake, and through Christ, those who, through the grace of the Holy Ghost, shall believe on this his Son Jesus, and shall persevere in this faith and obedience of faith, through this grace, even to the end; and, on the other hand, to leave the incorrigible and unbelieving in sinand under wrath, and to condemn them as alienate from Christ, according to the word of the Gospelin John iii. 36: "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life; and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him," and according to other passages of Scripture also.
*Article II - That, agreeably thereto, Jesus Christ, the Savior of the world, died for all men and for every man, so that he has obtained for them all, by his death on the cross, redemption, and the
forgivenessof sins; yet that no one actually enjoys this forgiveness of sins, except the believer, according to the word of the Gospel of John iii. 16: "God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life"; and in the First Epistle of Johnii. 2: "And he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world."
* Article III — That man has not saving grace of himself, nor of the energy of his free-will, inasmuch as he, in the state of
apostasyand sin, can of and by himself neither think, will, nor do anything that is truly good (such as having faith eminently is); but that it is needful that he be born againof God in Christ, through his Holy Spirit, and renewed in understanding, inclination, or will, and all his powers, in order that he may rightly understand, think, will, and effect what is truly good, according to the word of Christ, John xv. 5: "Without me ye can do nothing."
* Article IV — That this grace of God is the beginning, continuance, and accomplishment of an good, even to this extent, that the regenerate man himself, without that prevenient or assisting; awakening, following, and co-operative grace, can neither think, will, nor do good, nor withstand any
temptations to evil; so that all good deeds or movements that can be conceived must be ascribed to the grace of God in Christ. But, as respects the mode of the operation of this grace, it is not irresistible, inasmuch as it is written concerning many that they have resisted the Holy Ghost,—Acts , and elsewhere in many places.
* Article V — That those who are incorporated into Christ by a true faith, and have thereby become partakers of his life-giving spirit, have thereby full power to strive against
Satan, sin, the world, and their own flesh, and to win the victory, it being well understood that it is ever through the assisting grace of the Holy Ghost; and that Jesus Christ assists them through his Spirit in all temptations, extends to them his hand; and if only they are ready for the conflict, and desire his help, and are not inactive, keeps them from falling, so that they, by no craft or power of Satan, can be misled, nor plucked out of Christ's hands, according to the word of Christ, John x. 28: "Neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand." But whether they are capable, through negligence, of forsaking again the first beginnings of their life in Christ, of again returning to this present evil world, of turning away from the holy doctrine which was delivered them, of losing a good conscience, of becoming devoid of grace, that must be more particularly determined out of the Holy Scriptures before they can teach it with the full persuasion of their minds.
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