Buxus

Buxus

Taxobox
name = "Buxus"



image_width = 240px
image_caption = Common Box "Buxus sempervirens"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Buxales
familia = Buxaceae
genus = "Buxus"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = About 70 species; see text

"Buxus" is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names include box (majority of English-speaking countries) or boxwood (North America).

The boxes are native to western and southern Europe, southwest, southern and eastern Asia, Africa, Madagascar, northernmost South America, Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean, with the majority of species tropical or subtropical; only the European and some Asian species are frost-tolerant. Centres of diversity occur in Cuba (about 30 species), China (17 species) and Madagascar (9 species).

They are slow-growing evergreen shrubs and small trees, growing to 2-12 m (rarely 15 m) tall. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate, and leathery; they are small in most species, typically 1.5-5 cm long and 0.3-2.5 cm broad, but up to 11 cm long and 5 cm broad in "B. macrocarpa". The flowers are small and yellow-green, monoecious with both sexes present on a plant. The fruit is a small capsule 0.5-1.5 cm long (to 3 cm in "B. macrocarpa"), containing several small seeds.

The genus splits into three genetically distinct sections, each section in a different region, with the Eurasian species in one section, the African (except northwest Africa) and Madagascan species in the second, and the American species in the third. The African and American sections are genetically closer to each other than to the Eurasian section (Balthazar et al., 2000).

elected species

;Europe, northwest Africa, Asia
*"Buxus austro-yunnanensis" (Yunnan Box; southwest China)
*"Buxus balearica" (Balearic Box; Balearic Islands, southern Spain, northwest Africa)
*"Buxus bodinieri" (China)
*"Buxus cephalantha" (China)
*"Buxus cochinchensis" (Malaysia)
*"Buxus colchica" (Georgian Box; western Caucasus)
*"Buxus hainanensis" (Hainan Box; China: Hainan)
*"Buxus harlandii" (Harland's Box; southern China)
*"Buxus hebecarpa" (China)
*"Buxus henryi" (Henry's Box; China)
*"Buxus hyrcana" (Caspian Box; Alborz, eastern Caucasus)
*"Buxus ichangensis" (China)
*"Buxus latistyla" (China)
*"Buxus linearifolia" (China)
*"Buxus megistophylla" (China)
*"Buxus microphylla" (Japanese Box; Korea, China; long cultivated in Japan)
*"Buxus mollicula" (China)
*"Buxus myrica" (China)
*"Buxus papillosa" (western Himalaya)
*"Buxus pubiramea" (China)
*"Buxus rivularis" (Philippines)
*"Buxus rolfei" (Borneo)
*"Buxus rugulosa" (China, eastern Himalaya)
*"Buxus rupicola" (Malaysia)
*"Buxus sempervirens" (Common Box or European Box; western and southern Europe, except far southwest)
*"Buxus sinica" (Chinese Box; China, Korea, Japan)
*"Buxus stenophylla" (China)
*"Buxus wallichiana" (Himalayan Box; Himalaya);Africa, Madagascar
*"Buxus acuminata" (Africa: Zaire; syn. "Notobuxus acuminata")
*"Buxus calcarea" (Madagascar endemic)
*"Buxus capuronii" (Madagascar endemic)
*"Buxus hildebrantii" (eastern Africa: Somalia, Ethiopia)
*"Buxus humbertii" (Humbert's Box; Madagascar endemic)
*"Buxus itremoensis" (Madagascar endemic)
*"Buxus lisowskii" (Congo)
*"Buxus macowanii" (Cape Box; eastern and northern South Africa)
*"Buxus macrocarpa" (Madagascar endemic)
*"Buxus madagascarica" (Madagascan Box; Madagascar, Comoros)
*"Buxus monticola" (Madagascar endemic)
*"Buxus moratii" (Madagascar, Comoros)
*"Buxus natalensis" (Natal Box; eastern South Africa; syn. "Notobuxus natalensis")
*"Buxus obtusifolia" (eastern Africa; syn. "Notobuxus obtusifolia")
*"Buxus rabenantoandroi" (Madagascar endemic; syn. "B. angustifolia" GE Schatz & Lowry "non" Mill.);Americas
*"Buxus aneura" (Cuba)
*"Buxus bartletii" (Central America)
*"Buxus brevipes" (Cuba)
*"Buxus citrifolia" (Venezuela)
*"Buxus crassifolia" (Cuba)
*"Buxus ekmanii" (Cuba)
*"Buxus excisa" (Cuba)
*"Buxus heterophylla" (Cuba)
*"Buxus imbricata" (Cuba)
*"Buxus lancifolia" (Mexico)
*"Buxus macrophylla" (Central America)
*"Buxus mexicana" (Mexico)
*"Buxus muelleriana" (Cuba)
*"Buxus olivacea" (Cuba)
*"Buxus pilosula" (Cuba)
*"Buxus portoricensis" (Puerto Pico)
*"Buxus pubescens" (Mexico)
*"Buxus rheedioides" (Cuba)
*"Buxus vahlii" (Vahl's Box or Smooth Box; Puerto Pico; syn. "B. laevigata")

ymbolism and uses

Boxes are commonly used for hedges and topiary. Owing to the relatively high density of the wood (it is one of the few woods that is denser than water), boxwood is often used for chess pieces. Wooden chess sets almost always use boxwood for the white pieces and commonly use stained ("ebonized") boxwood for the black pieces, in lieu of ebony [ [http://www.thechesszone.com/chess_pieces_materials_manufacture#BOXWOOD The Chess Zone - Chess Piece Materials] ] .

References

Balthazar, M. von, Peter K. Endress, P. K., and Qiu, Y.-L. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in Buxaceae based on nuclear internal transcribed spacers and plastid "ndhF" sequences. "Int. J. Plant Sci". 161(5): 785–792 (available [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/IJPS/journal/issues/v161n5/000078/000078.web.pdf online] ).

External links

* [http://www.boxwood.co.uk/aboutbox.html About box (with "Buxus" distribution map)]
* [http://www.mnhn.fr/publication/adanson/a02n2a5.pdf Revision of the genus Buxus in Madagascar] (pdf file)
* [http://www.boxwoodsociety.org/ American Boxwood Society]
* [http://www.woodtype.org/museum_information_about.shtml/ Woodtype museum]

Nurseries

;North America
*Evergreen Plant Nursery, Evensville, TN. [http://www.evergreenplantnursery.com]
*Ashridge Trees, Somerset, UK, [http://store.ashridgetrees.co.uk] .
*Langley Boxwood Nursery, Hampshire, UK, [http://www.boxwood.co.uk/] .;Australasia
*Andreasens Nurseries, Kemps Creek, NSW, Australia. [www.andreasensgreen.com.au]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Buxus — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Bojes Buxus sempervirens Clasificación …   Wikipedia Español

  • BUXUS — Graece Πύξος, in viri militaris horto, verba sunt Auctoris Anonymi Sinae et Europae, quâ marginari solent lectisternia hortorum, cum est breviusculae naturae, attonderi, ve exurgat nimium, sed potius densius multiplicet ramulos; non potens… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Buxus — n. the type genus of the {Buxaceae}. Syn: genus {Buxus}. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Buxus — (B. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Euphorbiaceae Buxeae, zur Monocle Triandrie L., männliche Blüthen mit dreiblätterigem Kelche, zweiblätteriger Blumenkrone u. verkümmertem Fruchtknoten, weibliche Blüthen mit vierblätterigem Kelche,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Buxus — L. (Buchsbaum, Buxbaum), Gattung der Buxazeen, kleine Sträucher, bisweilen baumartig, mit gegenständigen, ganzrandigen, lederartigen, immergrünen Blättern, seitenständigen Blütenköpfchen oder Ähren mit endständigen weiblichen Blüten und schwarzen …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Buxus — L., Pflanzengattg., s. Buchsbaum …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Buxus — Buchsbäume Gewöhnlicher Buchsbaum (Buxus sempervirens) Systematik Überabteilung: Samenpflanzen (Spermatophyta) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Buxus — Buis  Pour l’article homophone, voir Bui …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Buxus — ID 12269 Symbol Key BUXUS Common Name boxwood Family Buxaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity N/A US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution NC, NY, OH, PR, TN, VA, VI Growth Habit N/A …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Buxus — buksmedis statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Buksmedinių (Buxaceae) šeimos augalų gentis (Buxus). atitikmenys: lot. Buxus angl. box vok. Buchs; Buchsbaum rus. самшит lenk. bukszpan …   Dekoratyvinių augalų vardynas


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»