- Thermoplastic elastomer
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), sometimes referred to as thermoplastic rubbers, are a class of
copolymers or a physical mix of polymers (usually a plastic and a rubber) which consist of materials with both thermoplasticand elastomeric properties. While most elastomers are thermosets, thermoplastics are in contrast relatively easy to use in manufacturing, for example, by injection molding. Thermoplastic elastomers show both advantages typical of rubbery materials and plastic materials. The principal difference between thermoset elastomers and thermoplastic elastomers is the type of crosslinking bond in their structures. In fact, crosslinking is a critical structural factor which contributes to impart high elastic properties. The crosslink in thermoset polymers is a covalent bondcreated during the vulcanizationprocess. On the other hand the crosslink in thermoplastic elastomer polymers is a weaker dipole or hydrogen bondor takes place in only in one of the phases of the material.
There are six generic classes of TPEs generally considered to exist commercially. They are styrenic block
copolymers, polyolefin blends, elastomeric alloys, thermoplastic polyurethanes, thermoplastic copolyester and thermoplastic polyamides. Examples of TPE products that come from block copolymers group are [http://iwww.plasticsportal.com/products/styroflex.html Styroflex] ( BASF), Kraton ( Shellchemicals), Pellethane ( Dowchemical), Pebax, Arnitel ( DSM), Hytrel ( Du Pont) and more. While there are three main commercial products of elastomer alloy: Santoprene( Monsanto), Geolast (Monsanto) and Alcryn (Du Pont).
In order to qualify as a thermoplastic elastomer, a material must have these three essential characteristics:
#The ability to be stretched to moderate elongations and, upon the removal of stress, return to something close to its original shape.
#Processable as a melt at elevated temperature.
#Absence of significant creep.
It was not until the 1950s, when thermoplastic polyurethane polymers became available, that TPE became commercially reality. During the 1960s styrene block copolymer became available, and in the 1970s a wide range of TPEs came on the scene. The worldwide usage of TPEs (680,000 tons/year in 1990) is growing at about 9% per year. The styrene-butadiene materials possess a two-phase microstructure due to incompatibility between the
polystyreneand polybutadieneblocks, the former separating into spheres or rods depending on the exact composition. With low polystyrene content, the material is elastomeric with the properties of the polybutadiene predominating. Generally they offer a much wider range of properties than conventional cross-linkedrubbers because the composition can be varies to suit customer needs.
Block copolymers are interesting because they can "microphase separate" to form periodic nanostructures, as in the styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer shown at right. The polymer is known as
Kratonand is used for shoe soles and adhesives. Owing to the microfine structure, the transmission electron microscope or TEMwas needed to examine the structure. The butadiene matrix was stained with osmium tetroxideto provide contrast in the image. The material was made by living polymerizationso that the blocks are almost monodisperse, so helping to create a very regular microstructure. The molecular weightof the polystyreneblocks in the main picture is 102,000; the inset picture has a molecular weight of 91,000, producing slightly smaller domains. The spacing between domains has been confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering, a technique which gives information about microstructure. Since most polymers are incompatible with one another, forming a block polymer will usually result in phase separation, and the principle has been widely exploited since the introduction of the SBS block polymers, especially where one of the block is highly crystalline. One exception to the rule of incompatibility is the material Noryl, where polystyreneand polyphenylene oxideor PPO forma continuous blend with one another.
Other TPE's have crystalline domains where one kind of block co-crystallizes with other block in adjacent chains, such as in copolyester rubbers, achieving the same effect as in the SBS block polymers. Depending on the block length, the domains are generally more stable than the latter owing to the higher crystal
melting point. That point determines the processing temperatures needed to shape the material, as well as the ultimate service use temperatures of the product. Such materials include Hytrel, a polyester-polyether copolymer and Pebax, a nylon or polyamide-polyether copolymer.
TPE materials have the potential to be recyclable since they can be molded, extruded and reused like plastics, but they have typical elastic properties of rubbers which are not recyclable owing to their thermosetting characteristics. TPE also require little or no compounding, with no need to add reinforcing agents, stabilizers or cure systems. Hence, batch-to-batch variations in weighting and metering components are absent, leading to improved consistency in both raw materials and fabricated articles. TPEs can be easily colored by most types of dyes. Besides that, it consumes less energy and closer and more economical control of product quality is possible.
The disadvantages of TPEs relative to conventional rubber or thermoset are relatively high cost of raw materials, general inability to load TPEs with low cost fillers such as carbon black (therefore preventing TPEs from being used in automobile tyres), poor chemical and heat resistance, high compression set and low thermal stability.
The two most important manufacturing methods with TPEs are
extrusionand injection molding. Compression moldingis seldom, if ever, used. Fabrication via injection molding is extremely rapid and highly economical. Both the equipment and methods normally used for the extrusion or injection molding of a conventional thermoplastic are generally suitable for TPEs. TPEs can also be processed by blow molding, thermoformingand heat welding.
TPE's are used where conventional elastomers cannot provide the range of physical properties needed in the product. Thus copolyester TPE's are used in
snowmobiletracks where stiffness and abrasion resistance is at a premium. They are also widely used for catheters where nylon block copolymers offer a range of softness ideal for patients. Styrene block copolymers are used in shoe soles for their ease of processing, and widely as adhesives. TPE is commonly used to make suspension bushings for automotive performance applications because of its greater resistance to deformation when compared to regular rubber bushings.TPE is also finding more and more uses as an electrical cable jacket/inner insulation, mostly in Portable Cord. Coleman Cable, Incmarkets a product trademarked as Seoprene. Carol Cableand AIWCoffer similar TPE insulated cables. TPE offers a flexibility and laying that traditional (American) type "S" portable cables don't offer.
* PR Lewis and C Price, "Polymer", 13, 22 (1972)
* Modern Plastic Mid-October Encyclopedia Issue, Introduction to TPEs, "page:109-110"
* S.A. Baeurle, A. Hotta and A.A. Gusev, 'A new semi-phenomenological approach to predict the stress relaxation behavior of thermoplastic elastomers', "Polymer" 46, 4344-4354 (2005) [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2004.07.034]
* S.A. Baeurle, T. Usami and A.A. Gusev, 'A new multiscale modeling approach for the prediction of mechanical properties of polymer-based nanomaterials', "Polymer" 47, 8604-8617 (2006) [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.10.017]
* S.A. Baeurle, A. Hotta and A.A. Gusev, 'On the glassy state of multi-phase and pure polymer materials', "Polymer" 47, 6243-6253 (2006) [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.05.076]
* [http://www.pslc.ws/mactest/tpe.htm Thermoplastic Elastomers]
* [http://www.glscorporation.com/resources_faqs.php Thermoplastic Elastomer FAQ]
* [http://www.glscorporation.com/resources_om_guide.php Thermoplastic Elastomer Overmolding Guide]
* [http://www.glscorporation.com/resources_im.php Thermoplastic Elastomer Injection Molding Guide]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TXW-4D1R2NV-1&_user=616165&_coverDate=05%2F26%2F2005&_alid=612188892&_rdoc=4&_fmt=full&_orig=search&_cdi=5601&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=8&_acct=C000032338&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=616165&md5=615d965b404b0aaec4b09f2a7b29e0a7 Stress Relaxation of Thermoplastic Elastomers]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TXW-4M9H3TS-1&_user=616165&_coverDate=12%2F08%2F2006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000032338&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=616165&md5=420422ad338e3158f9b55e7e41a5472d Interphases of Thermoplastic Elastomers]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TXW-4KBVVHK-1&_user=616165&_coverDate=08%2F09%2F2006&_alid=613506048&_rdoc=3&_fmt=summary&_orig=search&_cdi=5601&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=8&_acct=C000032338&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=616165&md5=1ffbf865ad13bf4e09d7e773e981207d Glassy State in Thermoplastic Elastomers]
* [http://www.pageranknet.com/mechanical-engineer/mechanical-engineer-archives/18-Thermoplastic-Elastomerers.html Thermoplastic Elastomer Journal by Mustafa Caykoylu]
* [http://www3.open.ac.uk/courses/bin/p12.dll?C01T838 Distance learning course in polymers]
* [http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=196631 Polymer Structures]
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