- Epic India
:"This article is about the kingdoms as reflected in Sanskrit literature. See
History of Indiafor a historical overview, in particular Mahajanapadasand Middle kingdoms of Indiafor historical kingdoms ca. 700 BC–AD 1200."
Epic India is the depiction of
Greater Indiain the Sanskrit epics, viz. the Mahabharataand the Ramayanaas well as Puranic literature (the itihasa).
The historical context of the Sanskrit epics are the late Vedic
Mahajanapadas(from about 700 BC) and the subsequent formation of the Maurya Empire, the beginning of the "golden age" of Classical Sanskrit literature.
The boundaries of the kingdoms
The kingdoms mentioned below existed when territorial boundaries were less important, due to the limited human population and sparse human settlements. Often rivers formed the boundaries of two neighbouring kingdoms, as was the case between the northern and southern Panchala and between the western (
Pandava's Kingdom) and eastern ( Kaurava's Kingdom) Kuru. Sometimes, large forests, which were larger than the kingdoms themselves, formed their boundaries as was the case of the Naimisha Forestbetween Panchala and Kosala kingdoms. Mountain ranges like Himalaya, Vindhya and Sahya also formed their boundaries.
The cities and villages
Some kingdoms possessed a main city that served as its capital. For example, the capital of Pandava's Kingdom was
Indraprasthaand the Kaurava's Kingdom was Hastinapura. Ahichatrawas the capital of Northern Panchala where as Kampilyawas the capital of Southern Panchala. Kosala Kingdomhad its capital as Ayodhya. Apart from the main city or capital, where the palace of the ruling king was situated, there were small towns and villages spread in a kingdom. Tax was collected by the officers appointed by the king from these villages and towns. What the king offered in return to these villages and towns was protection from the attack of other kings and robber tribes, as well as from invading foreign nomadic tribes. The king also enforced code and order in his kingdom by punishing the guilty.
Interactions between kingdoms
There were no border security for a kingdom and border disputes were very rare. One king may conduct a military-campaign (often designated as "Digvijaya" meaning "victory over all the directions") and defeat another king in a battle, lasting for a day. The defeated king would acknowledge the supremacy of the victorious king. The defeated king might some times be asked to give a tribute to the victorious king. Tribute will be collected only once, not in a periodic basis. The defeated king, in most cases, is free to rule his own kingdom, without maintaining any contact with the victorious king. There was no annexation of one kingdom by another kingdom. Often a military general makes these campaigns on behalf of his king. A military-campaign and tribute collection is often associated with a great sacrifice (like
Rajasuyaor Ashvamedha) conducted in the kingdom of the campaigner king. The defeated king also was invited to attend these sacrifice ceremonies, as a friend and ally.
New kingdoms were formed when a major clan produced more than one king in a generation. The Kuru clan of kings and Ikshwaku clan of kings were very successful in governing throughout north India with their numerous kingdoms, which were formed after each successive generation. Similarly, the Yadava clan of kings formed numerous kingdoms in central India.
Cultural differences in the kingdoms
Western parts of India were dominated by tribes who had a slightly different culture that was considered as non-vedic by the mainstream
Vedic cultureprevailed in the Kuru and Panchala kingdoms. Probably these were due to the influence of Iranian cultures. Similarly tribes ruling south India were also considered as non-Vedic by the Kuru, Panchalas, though the differences were not so significant. This may be due to the Dravidian nature of these tribes. Similarly there were some tribes in the eastern regions of India, considered to be in this category. Tribes with a different culture was collectively termed by the Vedic tribes by the name " Mlechha". Very little was mentioned in the ancient Indian literature, about the kingdoms to the north, beyond Himalayas. China was mentioned as a kingdom known as Chin, some times grouped with "Mlechcha" kingdoms.
Main kingdoms of Northern and North-Central India
North-Northwestern (Fishermen's) kingdoms
Kingdoms in the extreme South
Exotic tribes of ancient India
Historic figures of ancient India
Iron Age India
References and External Links
Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa(English translation is available at http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/maha/index.htm)
*Ramayana of Valmiki(English translation is available at http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/index.htm)
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