Eber (עֵבֶר, ISO 259-3 ʕebr, Standard Hebrew Éver, Tiberian Hebrew ʻĒḇer) is an ancestor of the Israelites, according to the "Table of Nations" in Genesis 10-11 and 1 Chronicles 1. He was a great-grandson of Noah's son Shem and the father of Peleg born when Eber was 34 years old, and of Joktan. He was the son of Shelah a distant ancestor of Abraham. According to the Hebrew Bible, Eber died at the age of 464 (Genesis 11:14-17) when Jacob was 20. The Hebrew Calendar synchronises this date with 1817 BCE.
In the Septuagint and other Christian Bibles derived from it, Eber is called Heber and his father is called Sala. His son is called Phaleg, born when Heber was 134 years old, and he had other sons and daughters. Heber lived to an age of 404 years. (Septuagint Genesis 11:14-17)
In Jewish tradition, Eber, the great-grandson of Shem, refused to help with the building of the Tower of Babel, so his language was not confused when it was abandoned. He and his family alone retained the original human language, Hebrew, a language named after Eber (Heber), also called lingua humana in Latin. (There are different religious positions on this issue; see also Adamic language.)
The name "Ever" עבר (Hebrew root letters ayin ע, bet/vet ב and reish ר, transliterated in English to "Eber" or "Heber") are considered by Biblical scholars to be the roots of the word "Hebrew" (ivri עברי and ivrit עברית, in Hebrew), with "ever" most often meaning "side" or "beyond", but also region beyond or across, opposite side, or passage, as in me'ever מעבר and maavar מעבר in both Biblical and Modern Hebrew as spoken in Israel today.
- [Genesis 10:21] Also to Shem, the father of all the Children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born. (NASB)
In some translations of the New Testament, he is referred to once as Heber ([Luke 3:35] ...the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Heber, the son of Salah...); however, he should not be confused with the Heber of the Old Testament (different Hebrew spelling חבר), grandson of Asher ([Genesis 46:17] The sons of Asher: Imnah and Ishvah and Ishvi and Beriah and their sister Serah. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel).
Theories about Eber
Eber (2303 BCE) son of Shelah (2333 BCE) and great-grandson of Shem (2468 BCE) is also the founding patriarch of the descendancy of Joktan and his son Jobab.
Linguistic association of "Eber", "Heber" and "Hebrew"
In the King James Version (KJV) of the Old Testament, the name "Eber" is used, while in the KJV New Testament, "Heber" is used instead, each referring to the same person. And in both KJV books, the word "Hebrew" refers to the descendants of this person. The confusion between "Eber" and "Heber" lies in transcriptional misunderstandings through ongoing layers of Biblical translation, as well as the differentiated cultural origins of the Old and New Testaments.
The origin of the names for Eber and the Hebrews, as used in European Christian languages, derived from Aramaic עבר ʿĒḇer and עברי ʿIḇrāy, as spoken in the Roman province of Judaea and by those Jews who escaped the province's destruction. When Greek-writing Jewish scholars compiled the Septuagint, the adaptations chosen for these names (for whatever reason) were Εβερ Heber and Εβραιος Hebraios. These names were adapted through Latin and French before reaching English as "Heber" and "Hebrew", and these names were used in the KJV New Testament.
However, the KJV Old Testament was largely translated not from Greek and Latin sources, but from existing Hebrew texts accessible to scholars at the time, employing a uniquely Anglo-Saxon method of adapting Hebrew words and names. As such, in the Old Testament, "Eber" was used without the H, likely reflecting the common Hebrew dialects used among the Jews of Europe. However, the KJV translators chose to use the New Testament name "Hebrew" (instead of "Ibrite" or "Eberite") as the canonical term for the descendants of Eber in the Old Testament as well, likely to avoid confusing lay readers.
As the King James Version of the Bible became the primary Christian scripture of Great Britain, the association of "Eber" with "Hebrew" in the English-speaking religious world became a permanent phenomenon.
Other than Jewish sources can be found in the ancient Irish history, here a clear story can be found on the relation between Eber and the Hebrew language.Template:Saint Augustine, City of God, 16:11
- Easton's Bible Dictionary: Eber | Heber | Hebrew
- Smith's Bible Dictionary: Eber | Heber | Hebrew
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Eber | Heber | Hebrew
- The History of Ireland: 
Adam to David according to the Hebrew Bible Creation to Flood Cain line Patriarchs after Flood Nationhood to Kingship Prophets in the Hebrew Bible Pre-Patriarchs (Bible) Patriarchs and Matriarchs Israelite prophets
in the Torah
in the Former Prophets
Major Prophets Minor Prophets Noahide prophets Other prophetsItalics denote that the status as a prophet is not universally accepted. · rl are articles dealing with the prophet within Rabbinic Literature. In Islamic tradition In Qur'anic exegesisNote: These are prophets mentioned in Stories of the Prophets, Qur'anic commentary and exegesis, the Hadith and other Islamic literature; none are mentioned by name in the Qur'an. Muslims, however, believe that 124,000 prophets were sent to mankind, with twenty-five named in the Qur'an and the figures above identified in exegesis. Italics denote that the figure's status as a prophet is not accepted by all Muslims.
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См. также в других словарях:
Eber — Eber, ancêtre de tous les Hébreux, descendant de Sem. Il est aussi le fils de Shélah. Le terme hébreu vient aussi de « ivri », ainsi que le terme arabe « عبر, aber » voulant dire « traverser », tel Abraham qui a… … Wikipédia en Français
EBER — (Heb. עבר, Ever). (1) Great grandson of shem , son of Noah and ancestor of Abraham (Gen. 10:21ff.; 11:14ff.; I Chr. 1:17ff.); presumably (but nowhere explicitly) intended as the eponymous ancestor of the hebrews (Ivrīm). All the children of Eber… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Eber — Sm std. (8. Jh.), mhd. eber, ahd. ebur, as. e␢ur(spiot) n.( ?) Stammwort. Aus wg. * ebura m. Eber , auch in ae. eofor. Das entsprechende anord. jo̧furr wird nur als übertragene Bezeichnung für Fürst verwendet. Entsprechend l. aper (mit… … Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache
Eber — Eber: Die altgerm. Bezeichnung für das männliche Schwein lautet mhd. eber, ahd. ebur, niederl. ever, aengl. eofor (das entsprechende aisl. jo̧furr kommt nur als dichterische Bezeichnung des Fürsten vor). Im außergerm. Sprachbereich sind z. B.… … Das Herkunftswörterbuch
Eber  — Eber, 1) männliches Schwein, s.d.; 2) (Ant. u. Herald.), s. Schwein (Ant.); 3) (Kriegsw.), so v.w. Viertelkarthaunen; 4) (Schiffsw.), so v.w. Ewer … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Eber  — Eber, 1) Sohn des Selah, von dem nach Einigen die Ebräer ihren Namen erhielten. 2) Paul, geb. 8. Novbr. 1511 in Kitzingen in Franken, wo sein Vater, Johannes E., ein Schneider war; studirte seit 1532 in Wittenberg Theologie, kam 1537 in die… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Eber  — Eber (althochd. ebur), das zuchtfähige männliche Schwein; das männliche Wildschwein; s. Schwein … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Eber  — Eber (Eberus), Paul, hervorragender Theolog der Reformationszeit, geb. 8. Nov. 1511 zu Kitzingen in Franken, gest. 10. Dez. 1569 in Wittenberg, begann 1536 zu Wittenberg philosophische und exegetische Vorlesungen, bekleidete seit 1544 die… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Eber — (lat. Ebērus), Paul, luth. Theolog und Liederdichter, treuester Freund Melanchthons, geb. 8. Nov. 1511 zu Kitzingen, 1557 Prof. zu Wittenberg, 1558 zugleich Generalsuperintendent des Kurkreises Sachsen, gest. 10. Dez. 1569. – Vgl. Buchwald (1897) … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Eber — Eber, Paul, geb. 1511 zu Kitzingen in Franken, wurde Prof. in Wittenberg und 1558 Generalsuperintendent des Kurkreises Sachsen, spielte eine Hauptrolle im Abendmahlsstreit und st. 1569. Mit Major gab er eine »Biblia germanico latina« heraus,… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Eber — Eber→Schwein … Das Wörterbuch der Synonyme