- Bridge of Arta
The Bridge of Arta is a stone
bridgethat crosses the Arachthos river("Αράχθος") near the city of Arta ("Άρτα") in Greece. The bridge became famous from the eponymous legendary folk ballad, which is at the core about human sacrifice. From the ballad, a number of Greek proverbs and customary expressions arose, associated with interminable delays, as in the text of the ballad: "All day they built it, and in the evening it collapsed."
The bridge and the legend
According to chronicler of Epirus
Panayiotis Aravantinos, the bridge was constructed during Ancient Roman times. However, according to some traditions it was built when Arta became capital of the Despotate of Epirus, possibly under Michael II Ducas ( 1230- 1271). Other alleged construction dates vary from 1602to 1606. Seraphim, the Archbishop of Arta, has noted that the bridge was built, according to some tradition, by an Artan grocer.
According to the folk ballad of the
acritic songsfamily, every day 1300 builders, 60 apprentices, 45 craftsmen or masons, under the leadership of the Head Builder, tried to build a bridge the foundations of which would collapse each morning. Finally a bird with a human voice informed the Head Builder that in order for the bridge to remain standing, he must sacrifice his wife. As the wife is being killed, being built in the foundations of the construction, she utters curses that conclude with blessings.
The folk ballad
"The Bridge of Arta" begins with the verses:
:"Forty five master builders and sixty apprentices":"a bridge they were building at the river of Arta":"All day they built it, and in the evening it collapsed..."
The idea that a major edifice can not be built without a human sacrifice ("building in" of a person) was also common in the folklore of other Balkan peoples such as Bulgarians, Albanians, Serbs and Romanians. A masterbuilder being forced to sacrifice his wife in this way is a common theme in folk songs. [cite web |title=Троица братя града градяха |last=Моллов |first=Тодор |publisher=LiterNet |date=
14 August 2002|accessdate=2007-05-19 |language=Bulgarian |url=http://liternet.bg/publish/tmollov/troica.htm] A recurring plot element is the masterbuilders' decision to sacrifice the woman who comes first to the building site to bring them food. All but one break their promise and tell their wives to come late, and it is the wife of the only honest one that is sacrificed. [БЪЛГАРСКО НАРОДНО ТВОРЧЕСТВО В ДВАНАДЕСЕТ ТОМА. Том VІІІ: Трудово-поминъчни песни. ЕИ "LiterNet" Варна. Второ издание, 2006 [http://liternet.bg/folklor/sbornici/bnt/8/212.htm] ] [Српске народне пјесме. Скупио их и на свијет издао Вук Стеф. Караџић.Технологије, издаваштво и агенција Београд, 11. октобар 2000 [http://www.rastko.org.yu/knjizevnost/usmena/vkaradzic-pesme_II_c.html#_Toc494261470 ] ]
One of the legends associated with
Merlinis that Vortigern, the King of England, was building a tower to defend himself from Ambrosiusand Uther Pendragon. Like the Bridge of Arta, whenever they finished one day's work on the tower it would collapse in the night and Vortigern's advisors recommended that sacrificing a child and mixing his blood with the mortar would prevent the collapse.
* Artemis Leontis, "The Bridge between the Classical and the Balkan", "The South Atlantic Quarterly" 98:4:625-631 (1999) [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/saq/v098/98.4leontis.pdf at MUSE] On understanding the place of the Bridge of Arta in the literary landscape.
* [http://www.artinoi.gr/art/gefyri1.html Bridge of Arta, in Greek]
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