- DNA sequence
A DNA sequence or genetic sequence is a succession of letters representing the
primary structureof a real or hypothetical DNA moleculeor strand, with the capacity to carry informationas described by the central dogma of molecular biology.
The possible letters are "A", "C", "G", and "T", representing the four
nucleotidebases of a DNA strand — adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine— covalently linked to a phosphodiester backbone. In the typical case, the sequences are printed abutting one another without gaps, as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC, read left to right in the 5' to 3' direction. Short sequences of nucleotides are referred to as oligonucleotides and are used in a range of laboratory applications in molecular biology. With regard to biological function, a DNA sequence may be considered "sense" or "antisense", and either coding or noncoding. DNA sequences can also contain " junk DNA."
Sequences can be derived from the biological raw material through a process called
In some special cases, letters besides A, T, C, and G are present in a sequence. These letters represent ambiguity. Of all the molecules sampled, there is more than one kind of nucleotide at that position. The rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (
IUPAC) are as follows:
A = adenine C = cytosine G = guanine T = thymine R = G A (purine) Y = T C (pyrimidine) K = G T (keto) M = A C (amino) S = G C (strong bonds) W = A T (weak bonds) B = G T C (all but A) D = G A T (all but C) H = A C T (all but G) V = G C A (all but T) N = A G C T (any)
* Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
* [http://www.nslij-genetics.org/dnacorr/ A bibliograph on features, patterns, correlations in DNA and protein texts]
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