Bedwetting

Bedwetting

ICDO =
OMIM =
MedlinePlus = 003144
eMedicineSubj = ped
eMedicineTopic = 689
MeshID = D053206

Bedwetting is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated. The medical term for this condition is "nocturnal enuresis." "Primary" Nocturnal Enuresis (PNE) is when a child has not yet stayed dry on a regular basis. "Secondary" Nocturnal Enuresis is when a child or adult begins wetting again after having stayed dry.

Bedwetting is the most common pediatric-health issue. Studies show that parents become worried too quickly because they expect children to stay dry too early. Most girls can stay dry by age six and most boys stay dry by age seven. By ten years old, 95% of children are dry at night. Studies place adult bedwetting rates at between 0.5% to 2.3%.

Developmental delay causes most bedwetting, frequently associated with a family history of the condition. Only a small percentage (5% to 10%) of bedwetting cases are caused by specific medical situations. cite web|url=http://www.duj.com/Johnson.html|title=Nocturnal Enuresis|publisher=www.duj.com|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Johnson|first=Mary]

Treatment ranges from behavioral-based options such as bedwetting alarms, to medication such as hormone replacement. For most patients, the treatment is aimed at protecting or improving self-esteem. cite web|url=http://www.duj.com/Johnson.html|title=Nocturnal Enuresis|publisher=www.duj.com|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Johnson|first=Mary] Treatment guidelines recommend that the physician counsel the parents, warning about psychological damage caused by pressure, shaming, or punishment for a condition children cannot control.

Normal processes of staying dry

Two physical functions prevent bedwetting. The first is a hormone that reduces urine production at night. The second is the ability to wake up when the bladder is full. Children usually achieve nighttime dryness by developing one or both of these abilities. There appear to be some hereditary factors in how and when these develop.

The first ability is a hormone cycle that reduces the body's urine production. At about sunset each day, the body releases a minute burst of antidiuretic hormone (also known as arginine vasopressin or AVP). This hormone burst reduces the kidney's urine output well into the night so the bladder doesn't get full until morning. This hormone cycle is not present at birth. Many children develop it between the ages of two and six years old, others between six and the end of puberty, and some not at all.

The second ability that helps people stay dry is waking when the bladder is full. This ability develops in the same age range as the vasopressin hormone, but is separate from that hormone cycle.

Most children develop the ability to stay dry as they grow older. The typical development process begins with one- and two-year-old children developing larger bladders and beginning to sense bladder fullness. Two- and three-year-old children begin to stay dry during the day. Four- and five-year-olds develop an adult pattern of urinary control and begin to stay dry at night. cite web|url=http://www.duj.com/Johnson.html|title=Nocturnal Enuresis|publisher=www.duj.com|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Johnson|first=Mary]

Frequency of bedwetting (epidemiology)

Most girls can stay dry at night by age six and most boys stay dry by age seven. Males are more likely to wet the bed than females. Males make up 60% of bedwetters overall and make up more than 90% of those who wet nightly.

Doctors frequently consider bedwetting as a self-limiting problem, since most children will grow out of it. Children 5 to 9 years old have a spontaneous cure rate of 14% per year. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old have a spontaneous cure rate of 16% per year.

Approximate bedwetting rates are :
* Age 5: 20%
* Age 6: 10 to 15%
* Age 7: 7%
* Age 10: 5%
* Age 15: 1-2%
* Age 18-64: 0.5%-1% [ cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=Pediatrics | Paediatrics | Pediatric Education | Paediatric Education - PediatricEducation.org|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

As can be seen from the numbers above, 5% to 10% of bedwetting children will not outgrow the problem, leaving 0.5% to 1% of adults still dealing with bedwetting. cite web|url=http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.03030.x|title=Nocturnal enuresis in the adolescent: a neglected problem|publisher=British Journal of Urology|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=] Individuals who are still enuretic at age 18 are likely to deal with bedwetting throughout their lives. Adult rates of bedwetting show little change due to spontaneous cure. cite web|url=http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.03030.x|title=Nocturnal enuresis in the adolescent: a neglected problem|publisher=British Journal of Urology|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

Studies of bedwetting in adults have found varying rates. The most-quoted study in this area was done in the Netherlands. It found a 0.5% rate for 18-64 year olds. A Hong Kong study, however, found a much higher rate. The Hong Kong researchers found a bedwetting rate of 2.3% in 16 to 40 year olds. cite web|url=http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.03030.x|title=Nocturnal enuresis in the adolescent: a neglected problem|publisher=British Journal of Urology|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

Medical definitions: primary vs. secondary enuresis

The medical name for bedwetting is "nocturnal enuresis". The condition is divided into two types: "primary" nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and "secondary" nocturnal enuresis.

Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE)

Primary nocturnal enuresis occurs when a child is beyond the age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated and either continues to average at least two wet nights a week with no long periods of dryness or would not sleep dry without being taken to the toilet by another person.

Some medical definitions list primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) as a clinical condition at between 4-5 years old. This type of classification is frequently used by insurance companies. It defines PNE as, “persistent bedwetting in the absence of any urologic, medical or neurological anomaly in a child beyond the age when over 75% of children are normally dry.” cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

Other definitions for PNE cast themselves as more “practical” guidance, saying that bedwetting can be considered a "clinical problem" if the child is unable to keep the bed dry by age seven. cite web|url=http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HE794|title=Bedwetting|publisher=University of Florida IFAS Extension|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Evans and Radunovich|first=] D'Alessandro refines this to bedwetting more than 2x/month after six years old for females and seven years old for males. cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

econdary nocturnal enuresis

Secondary enuresis occurs "after" a patient goes through an extended period of dryness at night (approx. 6 months or more) and then "reverts" to night-time wetting. Secondary enuresis can be caused by emotional stress or a medical condition, such as a bladder infection. [ cite web|url=http://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/enuresis.html|title=Enuresis|publisher=University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

U.S. psychological definition

Psychologists may use a definition from the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-IV, defining nocturnal enuresis as repeated urination into bed or clothes, occurring twice per week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child of at least 5 years of age and not due to either a drug side effect or a medical condition. Even if the case does not meet this criteria, the DSM-IV definition allows psychologists to diagnose nocturnal enuresis if the wetting causes the patient clinically significant distress. [ cite web|url=http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/25/4/193#SEC1|title=Empirically Supported Treatments in Pediatric Psychology: Nocturnal Enuresis -- Journal of Pediatric Psychology|publisher=Journal of Pediatric Psychology|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Mellon and McGrath|first=]

Causes of and increased risks for bedwetting

The following list summarizes bedwetting's known causes and risk factors. Enuretic patients frequently have more than one cause or risk factor from the items listed below. cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

Most-common causes

Most cases of bedwetting are PNE-type, which has two related most-common causes:

* Neurological-developmental delay
This is the most common cause of bedwetting. Most bedwetting children are simply delayed in developing the ability to stay dry and have no other developmental issues. cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

* Genetics
Bedwetting has a strong genetic component. Children whose parents were not enuretic have only a 15% incidence of bedwetting. When one or both parents were bedwetters, the rates jump to 44% and 77% respectively. cite web|url=http://www.aacap.org/galleries/PracticeParameters/Enuresis.pdf|title=Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Enuresis|publisher=J . AM. ACAD. CHILD ADOLESC. PSYCHIATRY|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=] Genetic research shows that bedwetting is associated with the genes on chromosomes 13q and 12q (possibly 5 and 22 also). cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

There is no test to prove that bedwetting is only a developmental delay and genetic testing offers little or no benefit to a bedwetting patient.

Other proven causes

Doctors examining a bedwetting patient will search for the following, less frequent, causes of nocturnal enuresis.

* Infection/disease
Infections and disease are more strongly connected with "secondary" nocturnal enuresis and with "daytime" wetting. Less than 5% of all bedwetting cases are caused by infection or disease, the most common of which is a urinary tract infection. [ cite web|url=http://cks.library.nhs.uk/enuresis_nocturnal/in_depth/background_information|title=CKS: Enuresis — nocturnal - In depth - Background information|publisher=National Library for Health, National Health Service|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

* Physical abnormalities
Less than 10% of enuretics have urinary tract abnormalities, such as a smaller than normal bladder. Current data does support increased bladder tone in some enuretics, which functionally would decrease bladder capacity. cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

* Insufficient anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) production
A portion of bedwetting children do not produce enough of the anti-diuretic hormone. As explained above, the body normally increases ADH hormone levels at night, signalling the kidneys to produce less urine. The diurnal change may not be seen until about age 10. cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

* Psychological
Psychological issues (e.g., death in the family, sexual abuse, extreme bullying) are established as a cause of "secondary" nocturnal enuresis (a return to bedwetting), [ cite web|url=http://www.urologychannel.com/pediatric/enuresis.shtml|title=Pediatric Urology Enuresis (Bedwetting), Causes, Treatment|publisher=www.urologychannel.com|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=] but are very rarely a cause of PNE-type bedwetting. cite web|url=http://www.aacap.org/galleries/PracticeParameters/Enuresis.pdf|title=Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Enuresis|publisher=J . AM. ACAD. CHILD ADOLESC. PSYCHIATRY|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=] [cite journal |author=Butler RJ |title=Childhood nocturnal enuresis: developing a conceptual framework |journal=Clin Psychol Rev |volume=24 |issue=8 |pages=909–31 |year=2004 |month=December |pmid=15533278 |doi=10.1016/j.cpr.2004.07.001 |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0272-7358(04)00078-9 |accessdate=2008-07-01]
When Enuresis is caused by a psychological disorder, the bedwetting is considered a "symptom" of the disorder. Enuresis does have a psychological diagnosis code (see previous section), but it is not considered a psychological condition itself. cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=] (See section on psychological/social impact, below)

* Constipation
Chronic constipation can cause bedwetting. When the bowels are full, it can put pressure on the bladder. [ cite web|url=http://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pedtext/s13c09.html|title=Case Based Pediatrics For Medical Students and Residents|publisher=Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Reynoso Paredes|first=Potenciano ]

* Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
are 2.7 times more likely to have bedwetting issues. [ cite web|url=http://cks.library.nhs.uk/enuresis_nocturnal/in_depth/background_information|title=CKS: Enuresis — nocturnal - In depth - Background information|publisher=National Library for Health, National Health Service|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

* Caffeine
Caffeine increases urine production. [ cite web|url=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003144.htm|title=MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Urination - bed wetting|publisher=www.nlm.nih.gov|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

* Alcohol Consumption
Alcohol increases urine production.

* More severe neurological-developmental issues
Patients with mental handicaps, such as Down syndrome, have a higher rate of bedwetting problems. One study of seven year olds showed that, "handicapped and mentally retarded children," had a bedwetting rate almost three times higher than non-handicapped children (26.6% vs. 9.5%, respectively). [cite journal |author=Järvelin MR, Vikeväinen-Tervonen L, Moilanen I, Huttunen NP |title=Enuresis in seven-year-old children |journal=Acta Paediatr Scand |volume=77 |issue=1 |pages=148–53 |year=1988 |month=January |pmid=3369293 |doi= |url= |accessdate=2008-07-01]

* Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea stemming from an upper airway obstruction has been associated with bedwetting. Snoring and enlarged tonsils or adenoids are a sign of potential sleep apnea problems. cite web|url=http://www.aacap.org/galleries/PracticeParameters/Enuresis.pdf|title=Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Enuresis|publisher=J . AM. ACAD. CHILD ADOLESC. PSYCHIATRY|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

Unconfirmed, controversial, or mixed causes

* Heavy sleeping
Many parents report that their bedwetting children are heavy sleepers. Research in this area has produced some contradictory results. Studies show that children wet the bed during "all" phases of sleep, not just the deepest (stage four). A recent study, however, showed that enuretic children were harder to wake up. [ cite web|url=http://www.drgreene.com/21_586.html|title=Bed Wetting And Its Causes|publisher=www.drgreene.com
accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=
] Some literature does show a possible connection between sleep disorders and ADH production. Insufficient ADH might make it more difficult to transition from light sleep to being awake. cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

* Stress
Stress is not a cause of "primary" nocturnal enuresis (PNE), but is well established as a cause of returning to bedwetting ("secondary" nocturnal enuresis). Researchers studying children who have yet to stay dry find, "no relationship to social background, life stresses, family constellation, or number of residencies.” cite web|url=http://www.pediatriceducation.org/2005/04/04|title=What is the Most Effective Treatment for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis?|publisher=www.pediatriceducation.org|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=] . On the other hand, stress is a cause of people who return to wetting the bed. Researchers find that moving to a new town, parent conflict or divorce, arrival of a new baby, or loss of a loved one or pet can cause insecurity, contributing to returning bedwetting. [ cite web|url=http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HE794|title=Bedwetting|publisher=University of Florida IFAS Extension|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Evans and Radunovich|first=]

* Food allergies
For some patients, food allergies may be part of the cause. This link is not well established, requiring further research. [cite journal |author=Mungan NA, Seckiner I, Yesilli C, Akduman B, Tekin IO |title=Nocturnal enuresis and allergy |journal=Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. |volume=39 |issue=3 |pages=237–41 |year=2005 |pmid=16118098 |doi=10.1080/00365590510007739 |url= |accessdate=2008-07-01] [ cite web|url=http://healthinfo.cedars-sinai.edu/library/healthguide/en-us/Cam/topic.asp?hwid=hn-1006005
title=Allergies and Sensitivities|publisher=Cedars-Sinai Health System|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=
]

* Improper toilet training
This is another disputed cause of bedwetting. This theory was more widely supported in the last century and is still cited by some authors today. Some say bedwetting can be caused by improper

* Dandelions
Anecdotal reports and folk wisdom says children who handle dandelions can end up wetting the bed. Dandelions are reputed to be a potent diuretic. [ cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/living-green/dandelions.html|title=Dandelions:time to throw in the trowel|accessdate=2007-07-10] English folk names for the plant are "peebeds" and "pissabeds". [ cite web|url=http://www.answers.com/topic/dandelions-1|title=English folklore] In French dandelions are called "pissenlit", which means "urinate in bed"; likewise "piscialletto", an Italian folkname, and "meacamas" in Spanish. [ cite web|url=http://www.herbalteatips.com/Benefits.php|title=Benefits of herbal tea]

Psychological-social impact

A review of medical literature shows doctors consistently stressing that a bedwetting child is not at fault for the situation. Many medical studies state that the psychological impacts of bedwetting are more important than the physical considerations. “It is often the child's and family member's reaction to bedwetting that determines whether it is a problem or not.” cite web|url=http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HE794|title=Bedwetting|publisher=University of Florida IFAS Extension|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=Evans and Radunovich|first=]

Impact on self-esteem

Whether bedwetting "causes" low self-esteem remains a subject of debate, but several studies have found that self-esteem improved with management of the condition. cite web|url=http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp?tid=659967|title=Helping Children with Nocturnal Enuresis|publisher=www.nursingcenter.com|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Berry|first=Amanda] Children questioned in one study ranked bedwetting as the third most stressful life event, after parental divorce and parental fighting. Adolescents in the same study ranked bedwetting as tied for second with parental fighting. cite web|url=http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp?tid=659967|title=Helping Children with Nocturnal Enuresis|publisher=www.nursingcenter.com|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Berry|first=Amanda]

Bedwetting children face problems ranging from being teased by siblings, being punished by parents, and being afraid that friends will find out.

Psychologists report that the amount of psychological harm depends on whether the bedwetting harms self-esteem or development of social skills. Key factors are: cite web|url=http://psychologytoday.com/conditions/enuresis.html|title=Psychology Today's Diagnosis Dictionary: Enuresis|publisher=psychologytoday.com|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

*How much the bedwetting limits social activities like sleep-overs and campouts
*The degree of the social ostracism by peers
*Anger, punishment, and rejection by caregivers
*The number of failed treatment attempts
*How long the child has been wetting

Behavioral impact

Studies show that bedwetting children are more likely to have behavioral problems. For children who have developmental problems, the behavioral problems and the bedwetting are frequently part of/caused by the developmental issues. For bedwetting children without other developmental issues, these behavioral issues can result from self-esteem issues and stress caused by the wetting. cite web|url=http://psychologytoday.com/conditions/enuresis.html|title=Psychology Today's Diagnosis Dictionary: Enuresis|publisher=psychologytoday.com|accessdate=2008-02-02|last=|first=]

As mentioned previously, current studies show that it is very rare for a child to intentionally wet the bed as a method of acting out.

Historical psychological perspective on bedwetting

Psychological theory through the 1960s placed much greater focus on the possibility that a bedwetting child might be acting out, purposefully striking back against parents by soiling linens and bedding. (More recent research and medical literature states that this is very rare.) cite web|url=http://rwjsurgery.umdnj.edu/divisions/Urology/Peds/bedwetting.asp|title=Department of Surgery, UMDNJ-RWJMS|publisher=rwjsurgery.umdnj.edu|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=|first=] [ cite web|url=http://children.musc.edu/news/parenting_newsletter/2002_12/|title=Many Older Children Struggle With Bedwetting
publisher=MUSC Children's Hospital|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=|first=
]

Punishment for bedwetting: effects and rates

Medical literature states and studies show that punishing or shaming a child for bedwetting will frequently make the situation worse. Doctors describe a downward cycle where a child punished for bedwetting feels shame and a loss of self-confidence. This can cause increased bedwetting incidents, leading to more punishment and shaming.

In the United States, about 25% of enuretic children are punished for wetting the bed.cite journal |author=Haque M, Ellerstein NS, Gundy JH, "et al" |title=Parental perceptions of enuresis. A collaborative study |journal=Am. J. Dis. Child. |volume=135 |issue=9 |pages=809–11 |year=1981 |month=September |pmid=7282655 |doi= |url= |accessdate=2008-07-01] In Hong Kong, 57% of enuretic children are punished for wetting. [ cite web|url=http://www.hkjpaed.org/details.asp?id=85&show=1234|title=Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: Patient Attitudes and Parental Perceptionss|publisher=Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=|first=] Parents with only a grade-school level education punish bed-wetting children at twice the rate of high school- and college-educated parents.

Impact on families

Parents and family members are frequently stressed by a child’s bedwetting. Soiled linens and clothing cause additional laundry. Wetting episodes can cause lost sleep if the child wakes and/or cries, waking the parents. A European study estimated that a family with a child who wets nightly will pay about $1,000 a year for additional laundry, extra sheets, disposable absorbent garments such as diapers, and mattress replacement. cite web|url=http://www.nursingcenter.com/prodev/ce_article.asp?tid=659967|title=Helping Children with Nocturnal Enuresis|publisher=www.nursingcenter.com|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Berry|first=Amanda]

Despite these stressful effects, doctors emphasize that parents should react patiently and supportively. [ cite web|url=http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/general/sleep/enuresis.html|title=Bedwetting|publisher=www.kidshealth.org
accessdate=2008-02-03|last=|first=
]

Treatment and management options

There are a number of treatment and condition-management options for bedwetting. The following options apply when the bedwetting is not caused by a specifically-identifiable medical condition such as a bladder abnormality or diabetes.

When treatment is recommended

Doctors consider medical evaluation/intervention when the physician suspects a bladder abnormality, lab tests show an infection or other medical condition like diabetes, or the bedwetting is harming the child’s self-esteem or relationships with family/friends. Only a small percentage of bedwetting is caused by the first two items (see below). Most treatment is covered under the thirdvague|please don't say first two and third, as with so many editors, these might be moved around already even. Please directly name what you are referring to, with physicians being concerned about the child's "emotional" welfare.

Parents become concerned much earlier than doctors. A study in 1980 asked parents and physicians the age that children should stay dry at night. The average parent response was 2.75 years old, while the average physician response was 5.13 years old. [cite journal |author=Shelov SP, Gundy J, Weiss JC, "et al" |title=Enuresis: a contrast of attitudes of parents and physicians |journal=Pediatrics |volume=67 |issue=5 |pages=707–10 |year=1981 |month=May |pmid=7255000 |doi= |url=]

Punishment is not effective and can interfere with treatment.

Treatment options with high success rates

* Waiting
Almost all children will outgrow bedwetting. For this reason, urologists and pediatricians frequently recommend delaying treatment until the child is at least six or seven years old. Physicians may begin treatment earlier if they perceive the condition is damaging the child’s self-esteem and/or relationships with family/friends.

*Bedwetting alarms
Physicians also frequently suggest bedwetting alarms which sound a loud tone when they sense moisture. This can help condition the child to wake at the sensation of a full bladder. These alarms are considered effective, with study participants being 13 times more likely to become dry at night. There is a 29% to 69% relapse rate, however, so the treatment may need to be repeated. cite web|url=http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/323/7322/1167?view=full&pmid=11711411#SEC5|title=Evidence based paediatrics: Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis|publisher=BMJ|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Evans|first=Jonathan]

* DDAVP (Desmopressin)
Desmopressin tablets are a synthetic replacement for antidiuretic hormone, the hormone that reduces urine production during sleep. Desmopressin is usually used in the form of Desmopressin acetate, DDAVP. Patients taking DDAVP are 4.5 times more likely to stay dry than those taking a placebo. cite web|url=http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/323/7322/1167?view=full&pmid=11711411#SEC5|title=Evidence based paediatrics: Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis|publisher=BMJ|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Evans|first=Jonathan] The drug replaces the hormone for that night with no cumulative effect.
US drug regulators have banned using Desmopressin nasal sprays for treating bedwetting, but say that Desmopressin pills are still considered a safe bedwetting treatment for otherwise healthy patients. The regulators reviewed the drug after two children using Desmopressin nasal sprays died from Hyponatremia, an imbalance of sodium levels in the body. cite web|url=http://www.webmd.com/news/20071204/2-deaths-spur-bedwetting-drug-warning|title=2 Deaths Spur Bed-Wetting Drug Warning|publisher=www.webmd.com|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=|first=]

* Tricyclic antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressant prescription drugs with anti-muscarinic properties have been proven successful in treating bedwetting, but also have an increased risk of side effects. These drugs include Amitriptyline, Imipramine and Nortriptyline. Studies find that patients using these drugs are 4.2 times as likely to stay dry as those taking a placebo. cite web|url=http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/323/7322/1167?view=full&pmid=11711411#SEC5|title=Evidence based paediatrics: Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis|publisher=BMJ|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Evans|first=Jonathan] The relapse rates after stopping the medicines are close to 50%.

Condition management options

*Diapers
Diapers can reduce the embarrassment and mess of wetting incidents. Diaper sizes for enuresis cover individuals from 38 lb (17 kg) through adult sizes. Some research, however, indicates that extended use of diapers can interfere with learning to stay dry. [ cite web|url=http://seab.envmed.rochester.edu/jaba/articles/2004/jaba-37-01-0097.pdf|title=EXTENDED DIAPER WEARING: EFFECTS ON CONTINENCE IN AND OUT OF THE DIAPER|publisher=JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=|first=]

*Waterproof sheets are used in some cases to ease clean-up of bedwetting incidents.

Unproven/ineffective treatment options

* Dry bed training
Dry bed training consists of a strict schedule of waking the child at night, attempting to condition the child into waking by himself/herself. cite web|url=http://health.yahoo.com/fitness-resources/dry-bed-training-for-bed-wetting/healthwise--hw211600.html
title=Dry-bed training for bed-wetting|publisher=Yahoo! Health|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Fackler|first=Amy
] Studies show this training is ineffective by itself cite web|url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/20060501/bmj.html|title=Clinical Evidence Concise: Nocturnal Enuresis|publisher=American Family Physician|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=|first=] and does not increase the success rate when used in conjunction with a bedwetting alarm. cite web|url=http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/323/7322/1167?view=full&pmid=11711411#SEC5|title=Evidence based paediatrics: Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis|publisher=BMJ|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Evans|first=Jonathan]

* Star chart
A star chart allows a child and parents to track dry nights, as a record and/or as part of a reward program. This can be done either alone or with other treatments. There is no research to show effectiveness, either in reducing bedwetting or in helping self-esteem. cite web|url=http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/323/7322/1167?view=full&pmid=11711411#SEC5|title=Evidence based paediatrics: Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis|publisher=BMJ|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Evans|first=Jonathan] Some psychologists, however, recommend star charts as a way to celebrate successes and help a child's self-esteem. cite web|url=http://health.yahoo.com/fitness-resources/dry-bed-training-for-bed-wetting/healthwise--hw211600.html
title=Dry-bed training for bed-wetting|publisher=Yahoo! Health|accessdate=2008-02-03|last=Fackler|first=Amy
]

Macdonald triad

Bedwetting is one of the three behavioral characteristics of the Macdonald triad, described by John Macdonald in 1963. [Macdonald JM (1963). The threat to kill. "Am J Psychiatry" 120:125-130] The other two characteristics are firestarting and animal abuse. Macdonald determined in his research that there is an association between the a person displaying these three characteristics, and the person engaging in sociopathic criminal behavior. Bedwetting alone is not an indicator for sociopathy.

ee also

* Urinary incontinence

References

External links

* [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.03030.x?cookieSet=1 Nocturnal enuresis in the adolescent: a neglected problem]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9343279&dopt=Abstract The burden of nocturnal enuresis.]
* [http://www.aacap.org/galleries/PracticeParameters/Enuresis.pdf Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Enuresis]
* [http://www.hkjpaed.org/details.asp?id=85&show=1234 Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: Patient Attitudes and Parental Perceptions]
* [http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/25/4/193 Empirically Supported Treatments in Pediatric Psychology: Nocturnal Enuresis]
* [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1121645 Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis article at NIH Web site]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15533278&dopt=Abstract Childhood nocturnal enuresis: developing a conceptual framework.]


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См. также в других словарях:

  • bedwetting — n. involuntary urination during the night. * * * /bed wet ing/, n. urinating in bed, esp. habitually and involuntarily; enuresis. Also, bed wetting. [1885 90; BED + WET (v.) + ING1] * * * bedwetting UK [ˈbedˌwetɪŋ] US noun [uncountable] the… …   Useful english dictionary

  • bedwetting — [[t]be̱dwetɪŋ[/t]] also bed wetting N UNCOUNT Bedwetting means urinating in bed, usually by small children …   English dictionary

  • bedwetting — /bed wet ing/, n. urinating in bed, esp. habitually and involuntarily; enuresis. Also, bed wetting. [1885 90; BED + WET (v.) + ING1] * * * …   Universalium

  • bedwetting — noun Involuntary urination while asleep Syn: enuresis, sleepwetting …   Wiktionary

  • Bedwetting — Involuntary urination in bed. Called “enuresis,” from the Greek “enourin” meaning * * * n. see enuresis …   Medical dictionary

  • bedwetting — bed|wet|ting [ bed,wetıŋ ] noun uncount the problem of URINATING during sleep …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • bedwetting — n.; see enuresis …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • bedwetting — UK [ˈbedˌwetɪŋ] / US noun [uncountable] the problem of urinating during sleep …   English dictionary

  • bedwetting — bed′wet ting or bed′ wet ting, n. urinating in bed during sleep, esp. habitually; enuresis • Etymology: 1885–90 bed′wet ter, n …   From formal English to slang

  • bedwetting — /ˈbɛdwɛtɪŋ/ (say bedweting) noun → enuresis. Also, bed wetting, bed wetting. –bedwetter, noun …   Australian English dictionary


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