- Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (
22 December 1597– 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
He was the elder son of Duke
Johann Adolf of Holstein-Gottorpand Augusta of Denmark. His mother was a daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark.
He had ambitious plans concerning the development of sea trade. Under this purpose he established in 1621
Friedrichstadt, in sympathy with city of Glückstadtestablished in 1617 by Christian IV of Denmark. Furthermore, he attempted to find a commercial way to Russiaand Persiathat would not pass around Africa. For this reason he sent on 6 November 1633the expedition from Hamburgto Moscowunder the management of a commercial agent of Otto Brüggemannand a ducal adviser, Philipp Crusius, and with Adam Oleariusas secretary. On 14 August 1634the delegation arrived at Moscow. Although it was not successful in concluding a commercial agreement with Tsar Michael I of Russia, nevertheless, immediately after the return of the delegation to Gottorpon 6 April 1635, Frederick began the preparation of the following expedition.
The difficult task of leading the country through the
Thirty Years' Warconfronted Frederick. He tried a policy of neutrality, which meant in practice the refusal of the union with Denmarkand inclinations toward Sweden. Thus, he married his daughter Hedwig Eleonore to King Charles X of Sweden. Since the Swedish attempt at being the "Great Power" failed, Frederick's pro-Swedish policy led to weakening of the house of Holstein-Gottorp.
Frederick as the patron of the art and culture was more successful. Thus he founded on
3 September 1642together with Duke Ludwig I of Anhalt-Köthenthe Fruitbearing Society. Furthermore, he contributed to the creation of the Globe of Gottorf. The painter Jürgen Ovensworked more than 30 years for him and his successor Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp.
Family and children
He was married in
Dresdenon 21 February 1630with Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxony, daughter of Elector John George I of Saxony and Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia. They had the following children:
# Sofie Auguste (
5 December 1630– 12 December 1680), married on 16 September 1649to Prince John VI of Anhalt-Zerbst.
# Magdalene Sibylle (
24 November 1631– 22 September 1719), married on 28 November 1654to Duke Gustav Adolf of Mecklenburg-Güstrow.
# Johann Adolf, died young in 1633.
# Marie Elisabeth (
6 June 1634– 17 June 1665), married on 24 November 1650to Landgrave Louis VI of Hesse-Darmstadt.
# Friedrich (
17 July 1635– 12 August 1654).
# Hedwig Eleonore (
23 October 1636– 24 November 1715), married on 24 October 1654to King Charles X of Sweden.
# Adolf August, died young in 1637.
# Johann Georg (
8 August 1638– 25 November 1655).
# Anna Dorothea (
13 February 1640– 13 May 1713).
Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp( 3 February 1641– 6 January 1695).
# Gustav Ulrich, died young in 1642.
# Christine Sabine, died young in 1644.
# August Friedrich (
6 May 1646– 2 October 1705).
# Adolf, died young in 1647.
# Elisabeth Sofie, died young in 1647.
# Auguste Marie (
6 February 1649– 25 April 1728), married on 15 May 1670to Margrave Frederick VII of Baden-Durlach.
History of Schleswig-Holstein
Globe of Gottorf
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