Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp (22 December 1597 – 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.

He was the elder son of Duke Johann Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp and Augusta of Denmark. His mother was a daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark.

He had ambitious plans concerning the development of sea trade. Under this purpose he established in 1621 Friedrichstadt, in sympathy with city of Glückstadt established in 1617 by Christian IV of Denmark. Furthermore, he attempted to find a commercial way to Russia and Persia that would not pass around Africa. For this reason he sent on 6 November 1633 the expedition from Hamburg to Moscow under the management of a commercial agent of Otto Brüggemann and a ducal adviser, Philipp Crusius, and with Adam Olearius as secretary. On 14 August 1634 the delegation arrived at Moscow. Although it was not successful in concluding a commercial agreement with Tsar Michael I of Russia, nevertheless, immediately after the return of the delegation to Gottorp on 6 April 1635, Frederick began the preparation of the following expedition.

The difficult task of leading the country through the Thirty Years' War confronted Frederick. He tried a policy of neutrality, which meant in practice the refusal of the union with Denmark and inclinations toward Sweden. Thus, he married his daughter Hedwig Eleonore to King Charles X of Sweden. Since the Swedish attempt at being the "Great Power" failed, Frederick's pro-Swedish policy led to weakening of the house of Holstein-Gottorp.

Frederick as the patron of the art and culture was more successful. Thus he founded on 3 September 1642 together with Duke Ludwig I of Anhalt-Köthen the Fruitbearing Society. Furthermore, he contributed to the creation of the Globe of Gottorf. The painter Jürgen Ovens worked more than 30 years for him and his successor Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp.


Family and children

He was married in Dresden on 21 February 1630 with Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxony, daughter of Elector John George I of Saxony and Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia. They had the following children:
# Sofie Auguste (5 December 1630 – 12 December 1680), married on 16 September 1649 to Prince John VI of Anhalt-Zerbst.
# Magdalene Sibylle (24 November 1631 – 22 September 1719), married on 28 November 1654 to Duke Gustav Adolf of Mecklenburg-Güstrow.
# Johann Adolf, died young in 1633.
# Marie Elisabeth (6 June 1634 – 17 June 1665), married on 24 November 1650 to Landgrave Louis VI of Hesse-Darmstadt.
# Friedrich (17 July 1635 – 12 August 1654).
# Hedwig Eleonore (23 October 1636 – 24 November 1715), married on 24 October 1654 to King Charles X of Sweden.
# Adolf August, died young in 1637.
# Johann Georg (8 August 1638 – 25 November 1655).
# Anna Dorothea (13 February 1640 – 13 May 1713).
# Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp (3 February 1641 – 6 January 1695).
# Gustav Ulrich, died young in 1642.
# Christine Sabine, died young in 1644.
# August Friedrich (6 May 1646 – 2 October 1705).
# Adolf, died young in 1647.
# Elisabeth Sofie, died young in 1647.
# Auguste Marie (6 February 1649 – 25 April 1728), married on 15 May 1670 to Margrave Frederick VII of Baden-Durlach.

ee also

* History of Schleswig-Holstein
* Globe of Gottorf

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