- Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army
Nagorno Karabakh Republic's Defense Army
Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Հանրապետության Պաշտպանության Բանակ
NKR Defense Army shoulder insignia
Service branches Army
Headquarters Stepanakert Leadership Commander-in-Chief President Bako Sahakyan Minister of Defense Lieutenant General Movses Hakobyan Manpower Military age 18 Conscription 2 years Active personnel 18,500 - 25,000 Reserve personnel 20,000 - 30,000 Expenditures Budget ? Percent of GDP ? Related articles History Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994)
Mardakert skirmishes (2008)
Mardakert skirmish (2010)
The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Defense Army (Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Հանրապետության ինքնապաշտպանության բանակ, Lerrnayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut’yan ink’napashtpanut’yan banak) is the formal defense force of the unrecognized but de-facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR). Established in 1992, it united previously disorganized self-defense units which were formed in the early 1990s with the avowed goal of protecting the ethnic Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh from the attacks by the Soviet and Azerbaijani armed forces. The Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army is currently composed of around 20,000 well-trained and -equipped officers and soldiers and maintains a "constant state of readiness, undergoing more serious combat training and operational exercises than any other former Soviet army."
The Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army was founded on May 9, 1992. It created "its own central command and military structure distinct from the Armenian Army." Its founders included Robert Kocharyan (the former president of Armenia, he was the first commander in chief of the Army); Serzh Sargsyan (current president of Armenia); Vazgen Sargsyan (Armenia's Defense Minister 1992-93, State Minister in Charge of defence 1993-95, Armenia's Prime-Minister 1998-99); Monte Melkonian (responsible for Martuni region); Samvel Babayan (Nagorno Karabakh's Defence Minister from 1994 to 2000) and others. Many of the men who served in its ranks and in the officer corps during the Nagorno-Karabakh War were seasoned veterans of the Soviet military and had fought with distinction in the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
The formal formation of the NKR Defense Army was rooted in the concept of the Jokat (volunteer detachment). With the early outbreak of hostilities prior to 1992, Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh began forming small detachments of volunteers, often self-described as Fedayeen, inheriting the name of the fighters who actively resisted the Ottoman Empire in the final decades of the nineteenth and early decades of the twentieth centuries.
At the outset these detachments were small groups of no more than 12-40 men. For example, during Operation Ring, Shahumyan was defended by a force as small as 22 men under the command of Tatul Krpeyan. These volunteer militia would initially arm themselves with whatever was available, including hunting shotguns borrowed from local farmers and even home-made rifles. In the later stages of the war, these units armed themselves with AK-47s, RPGs and sometimes portable anti-aircraft MANPADs, transforming the defense force into a highly mobile and flexible force that was capable of waging guerilla warfare. Likewise, these units initially had no heavy military equipment, but later started taking over large quantities of Azerbaijani tanks and armored personnel carriers that were abandoned on the battlefield. Most of these captured tanks and APCs later became part of the NKR Defense Army's equipment. Improvisation, multi-functionality, creativity, strong-morale, focus on defensive tactics, adaptation, flexibility, high-mobility and a native knowledge of the mountainous terrain are all important factors in understanding the combat success of these small units.
The initial purpose of these detachments, made up of volunteers, was mainly to defend Armenian civilian population, each in a particular village or town. Each of them was operating independently with no central command or leadership. Yet, these units would regularly collaborate in joint operations such as the battle of Khojaly in February 1992 or the June 1992 surprise counter-offensives against operation Goranboy. The increasing scale and intensity of Azeri attacks, the devastation caused by the bombardments emanating from Grad multiple rocket launchers in Shushi and the Lachin, the blockade from mainland Armenia had broadened the notion of security beyond the mere defense of a small village. Capturing Shushi and Lachin as well as turning the tide of operation Goranboy became, for the Armenians, not only a matter of security, but that of survival. For the successful conduct of such large-scale operations, the detachments had to be consolidated under a single command of the unified NKR Defense Army.
The Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army's primary role after the conclusion of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994 is the protection of the NKR from foreign and domestic threats. Though the war ended with the signing of a cease fire between Armenia and Azerbaijan and the de facto independence of the NKR, the Azerbaijani leadership has repeatedly threatened to restart hostilities to retake the region. Violations of the cease fire along the line of contact are frequent and often result in the deaths of several soldiers and civilians each year. The most significant breach of the ceasefire occurred in Mardakert on March 8, 2008, when up to sixteen soldiers were killed. Both sides accused the other of starting the battle.
In June 2010, new skirmishes broke out between Armenian and Azerbaijani troops along the line of contact, resulting in the deaths of four Armenian servicemen.
NCOs and Enlisted
The Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army's equipment consists of infantry, tanks, artillery and anti-aircraft systems. The Karabakh army's heavy military hardware includes:
- 316-371 tanks,
- 324-459 armored vehicles,
- 322-479 artillery pieces of calibers over 122mm,
- 44 multiple rocket launchers (most likely BM-21 Grad), and
- a new anti-aircraft defense system of an unspecified type.
As for infantry weapon most rely on the AK-74 rifle and older AKMs in reserve for standard issue rifles. While other basic weapons consists of Makarov PM pistols PK Machine Guns and RPG-7 rocket launchers mostly supplied by Armenia. The Nagorno-Karabakh military is deeply integrated with the Armenian military, and the NKR depends on the Armenian Army to ensure its survival as an independent national entity. Armenia considers any act of aggression against Karabakh as an act of aggression against itself.
The Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army maintains a small air-force with a personnel of around 250 men.
Aircraft Type Active Notes Ground-Attack Aircraft Sukhoi Su-25 Close air support aircraft 2 Attack Helicopters Mil Mi-24 Attack helicopter 5 During the military parade on 9 May 2007 5 Mi-24 helicopters were also on display as part of Nagorno-Karabakh's Air-Force. Transport and Utility Helicopters Mi-8 Medium transport helicopter 5 Advanced Research and Assessment Group of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom reports that NKR Army has 5 other helicopters. These are most likely to be transport and utility helicopters
Main battles participated in
- Capture of Shusha on (May 8–9, 1992)
- Opening the Lachin corridor between the Republic of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh (1992)
- Mardakert and Martuni Offensives (summer-autumn 1992)
- Defence of the Martakert front from 1992–1994
- Battle of Kelbajar on (March 27 - April 3, 1993)
- Agdam, Fizuli, Jebrail and Zangelan offensives (June-August 1993)
- 2008 Mardakert Skirimishes
- 2010 Mardakert skirmish
- Important Facts about the NKR Defence Army (Nagorno Karabakh Army). Office of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Washington D.C.
- ^ a b c d Blandy, C. W. "Azerbaijan: Is War Over Nagornyy Karabakh a Realistic Option?" Advanced Research and Assessment Group. Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Caucasus Series 08/17, 2008, p.16.
- ^ Important Facts about the NKR Defence Army (Nagorno Karabakh Army). Office of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Washington D.C. Accessed November 27, 2009.
- ^ a b c Giragosian, Richard. "Armenia and Karabakh: One Nation, Two States." AGBU Magazine. № 1, Vol. 19, May 2009, pp. 12-13.
- ^ Dzelilovic, Vesna Bojicic. "From Humanitarianism to Reconstruction: Towards an Alternative Approach to Economic and Social Recovery from War" in Global Insecurity (Restructuring the Global Military Sector) , Vol. 3. Eds. Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee. London: Pinter, 2000, p. 79.
- ^ a b c De Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press. pp. 196–197, 210. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7.
- ^ a b For a concise description of these units, see Melkonian, Markar (2005). My Brother's Road, An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-635-5.
- ^ See Melkonian. My Brother's Road, p. 225.
- ^ "Azeri Assault on Karabakh Outpost Kills Four Armenian Soldiers." Asbarez. June 21, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- ^ Yevgrashina, Lada and Hasmik Mkrtchyan. "Azeris, Armenians spar after major Karabakh clash". Reuters. March 5, 2008. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
- ^ "OSCE, EU Condemn Karabakh 'Armed Incident'." RFE/RL. June 22, 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- ^ http://www.uniforminsignia.net/index.php?option=com_insigniasearch&Itemid=53&state=138&search_id=main Ranks and Insignia - www.uniforminsignia.org
- ^ a b c d e DeRouen, Karl and Uk Heo (eds.) Civil Wars of the World: Major Conflicts since World War II. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2007, p. 151.
- ^ a b c Hans-Joachim Schmidt, [“Military Confidence Building and Arms Control in Unresolved Territorial Conflicts” http://www.humansecuritygateway.com/documents/PRIF_MilitaryConfidenceBuildingAndArmsControlInUnresolvedTerritorialConflicts.pdf], PRIF Reports No 89, Frankfurt am Main, 2009, p.12.
Military of Europe Sovereign
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
- Vatican City
States with limited
- European Union
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic — Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Հանրապետություն Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut yun … Wikipedia
Nagorno-Karabakh War — Nagorno Karabakh War … Wikipedia
Nagorno-Karabakh — For the republic, see Nagorno Karabakh Republic. Nagorno Karabakh Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ , Leṙnayin Ġarabaġ(Armenian) … Wikipedia
History of Nagorno-Karabakh — Ancient history The region of Nagorno Karabakh (ancient name, Artsakh, Արծախ) falls within the lands occupied by peoples known to modern archaeologists as the Kura Araxes culture, who lived between the two rivers bearing those names. Little is… … Wikipedia
Military history of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic — The Military history of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic contains information about the history of military actions or events done by or in the Nagorno Karabakh Republic. Contents 1 Nagorno Karabakh Defense Army 2 Capture of Shusha 3 Battle of… … Wikipedia
Military history of Nagorno-Karabakh — The Military history of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic contains information about the history of military actions or events done by or in the Nagorno Karabakh Republic. Nagorno Karabakh Defense Army : Main article: Nagorno Karabakh Defense Army… … Wikipedia
List of Armenians from Nagorno-Karabakh — Shushi= cientists*Artashes Arakelian (1909 1993) Economist, Armenian Science Academy Member (1960). Chaired the Regional Planning Division of NKAO, a researcher at Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics. He headed the Economy Institute of Armenia … Wikipedia
Law enforcement in Nagorno-Karabakh Republic — Law enforcement in the Nagorno Karabakh Republic is inconsistently enforced, as the region is a de facto independent republic officially part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, and is governed by the unrecognized National Assembly of Nagorno Karabakh … Wikipedia
List of Nagorno-Karabakh-related topics — This page list topics related to Nagorno Karabakh. NOTOC 0 9A*Armenia *Artsakh *AzerbaijanBC*Capture of ShushaDEFG*Ghazanchetsots CathedralH*History of Nagorno KarabakhIJ*JanaparKL*Lachin *Lachin corridor *Land mine situation in Nagorno… … Wikipedia
Constitution of Nagorno-Karabakh — Nagorno Karabakh Republic This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Nagorno Karabakh Constitution … Wikipedia