Christian de Duve


Christian de Duve
de Duve, Christian Rene
Born October 2, 1917 (1917-10-02) (age 94)
Thames Ditton, Surrey, Great Britain
Institutions Catholic University of Leuven
Rockefeller University
Alma mater Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege
Catholic University of Leuven
Known for Structure and function of organelles
Notable awards Francqui Prize for Biological and Medical Sciences 1960
Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 1974

Christian René, viscount de Duve (born 2 October 1917) is a Nobel Prize-winning cytologist and biochemist. De Duve was born in Thames Ditton, Surrey, Great Britain, as a son of Belgian refugees. They returned to Belgium in 1920. De Duve was educated by the Jesuits at Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege in Antwerp, before studying at the Catholic University of Leuven, where he became a professor in 1947. He specialized in subcellular biochemistry and cell biology and discovered peroxisomes and lysosomes, cell organelles.

In 1962 de Duve joined the faculty of what is now Rockefeller University in New York City, dividing his time between New York and Leuven. He took emeritus status at Université catholique de Louvain in 1985 and at Rockefeller in 1988, though he continued to conduct research.

Amongst other subjects, de Duve studied the distribution of enzymes in rat liver cells using rate-zonal centrifugation. De Duve's work on cell fractionation provided an insight into the function of cell structures.

In 1960, de Duve was awarded the Francqui Prize for Biological and Medical Sciences. He was awarded the shared Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1974, together with Albert Claude and George E. Palade, for describing the structure and function of organelles (lysosomes and peroxisomes) in biological cells. His later years have been mostly devoted to origin of life studies, which he admits is still a speculative field (see thioester).

His work has contributed to the emerging consensus that the endosymbiotic theory is correct; this idea proposes that mitochondria, chloroplasts, and perhaps other organelles of eukaryotic cells originated as prokaryote endosymbionts, which came to live inside eukaryotic cells.

De Duve proposes that peroxisomes may have been the first endosymbionts, which allowed cells to withstand the growing amounts of free molecular oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. Since peroxisomes have no DNA of their own, this proposal has much less evidence than the similar claims for mitochondria and chloroplasts.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Christian de Duve — Naissance 2 octobre 1917 Thames Ditton (Angleterre) Nationalité  Belge Champs Biochimie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Christian de Duve — Christian René de Duve (* 2. Oktober 1917 in Thames Ditton, Großbritannien) ist ein belgischer Biochemiker und Nobelpreisträger.[1] Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Werk 2 Veröffentlichungen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Christian De Duve — Naissance 2 octobre 1917 Thames Ditton (Angleterre) Nationalité belge …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Christian de duve — Naissance 2 octobre 1917 Thames Ditton (Angleterre) Nationalité belge …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Christian de Duve — (* Thames Ditton, Inglaterra. 2 de octubre de 1917) es un citólogo y bioquímico inglés. Hijo de padres belgas, estudió Medicina en la Universidad de Lovaina, Bélgica. Se doctoró en 1941. Fue catedrático de Bioquímica de la Universidad de Lovaina …   Wikipedia Español

  • Christian de Duve — Christian de Duve, nació en Thames Ditton, Inglaterra en 1917. Hijo de padres belgas, estudió Medicina en la Universidad de Lovaina, Bélgica. Se doctoró en 1941. Fue catedrático de Bioquímica de la Universidad de Lovaina, y en el Instituto… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1974: Albert Claude — Christian de Duve — George Palade —   Das belgisch amerikanische Wissenschaftlerteam erhielt den Nobelpreis für Medizin oder Physiologie für »seine Entdeckungen zur strukturellen und funktionellen Organisation der Zelle«.    Biografien   Albert Claude, * Longlier (Luxemburg) 23. 8 …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Duve — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Christian de Duve (* 1917), belgischer Biochemiker Freimut Duve (* 1936), deutscher Publizist und Politiker Johann Duve (1611–1679), deutscher Kaufmann und Bankier Karen Duve (* 1961), deutsche… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Duve, Christian René de — ▪ Belgian biochemist born Oct. 2, 1917, Thames Ditton, Surrey, Eng.       Belgian cytologist and biochemist who discovered lysosomes (lysosome) (the digestive organelles of the cell) and peroxisomes (organelles that are the site of metabolic… …   Universalium

  • Duve —   [dyːv], Christian René de, belgischer Biochemiker, * Thames Ditton (County Surrey) 2. 10. 1917; lehrte seit 1962 an der Rockefeller Universität in New York. Duve arbeitete zunächst über Insulin und Glucagon. Er befasste sich dann besonders mit… …   Universal-Lexikon


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