Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British) academic circles, is the archaeological sub-field that studies
plantremains from archaeological sites. Major research themes are recovery and identification of plant remains, the use of wild plants, the origins of agricultureand domestication, and the co-evolutionof human-plant interactions.
Paleoethnobotanists use a variety of methods to identify and recover plant remains. One method used to recover macroremains is to sieve excavated material manually in a water bath in order to allow the organic material to float to the surface. This method is known as "flotation." The matrix (the soil from a suspected archaeological feature) is slowly added to agitated water. The soil, sand, and other heavy material, known as "heavy fraction", will sink to the bottom. The less dense organic material such as charred seeds, wood and bone will tend to float to the surface. The material that floats to the top, called "light fraction", is gathered with a sieve. The organic light fraction is then available for examination. Samples of the heavy fraction are also gathered for later analysis. Other types flotation processes include machine-assisted flotation and froth flotation.
Paleoethnobotanists also recover and analyze microremains
phytoliths, pollen palynology, human paleofeces (sometimes called coprolite), and impressions in ceramic sherds (such as the imprint of grains in mixing bowl). Palynologyis a mature and distinct scientific discipline that studies pollen, typically in the context of reconstructing past environments. Dendrochronology, the study of growth rings on trees relating to study of past environments, is another scientific discipline useful to paleoethnobotanical study.
The work done in paleoethnobotany can be divided into
field work, collections management, systematic description of species, and theories into the origins of human and plant interaction. Some examples of this analysis:
A paleoethnobotanist may find discrete concentrations of burned or dried remnants of seeds in an area of discolored soil (a possible
hearthfeature). If later analyses indicates that the remnants were of only mature wild seeds of a type of plant that grows locally, it could be inferred that the site was only visited seasonally. Such an inference could be supported by a lack of other features that would suggest that no permanent shelters were built at the site.
Alternatively, a paleoethnobotanist may find that a fire pitfeature contains concentrated remnants of a wide variety of ediblewild plants that mature throughout the year. An archaeologist may findfeatures at the site that indicate some sort of semi-permanentdwellings (such as post holes and
middens). The middens may haveconcentrations of animal remains, identified by a zooarchaeologist as those of wild game, with a variety of species-specific maturity levels. In that case, a more permanent settlement may be inferred, perhaps to the level of a village. Such an analysis of the archaeological features could suggest a society of hunter-gatherers who inhabited the site on amore-or-less year-round basis.
A paleoethnobotanist may also find concentrated remains of plantsthat typically are only grown through active cultivation (such as corn, beans, and squash). At the same site, an archaeologist might identify features such as stone walls surrounding enclosures arrayed in a pattern, and deep, layered middens with concentrations of domesticated animal remains such as goats or pigs. An analysis of the site, set within the context of the archaeological features and animal and plant remains, would suggest a settled agrarian community.
* Pearsall, Deborah M, "Paleoethnobotany: A Handbook of Procedures", Second Edition, Academic Press, San Diego (2000), ISBN 0-12-548042-3.
* Christine A. Hastorf (Editor), Virginia S. Popper (Editor), "Current Paleoethnobotany : Analytical Methods and Cultural Interpretations of Archaeological Plant Remains (Prehistoric Archeology and Ecology series)", University of Chicago Press (January 15, 1989), ISBN 0-226-31893-1.
* Kristen J. Gremillion, "People, Plants, and Landscapes: Studies in Paleoethnobotany", University of Alabama Press (February 1, 1997), ISBN 0-8173-0827-X.
* Miksicek, C.H., "Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record.", In: M.B.Schiffer (ed.) Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory. Academic Press, New York, (1987) 211-247, ISBN 0-12-003110-8 .
List of paleoethnobotanists
* [http://www.envarch.net/ Association of Environmental Archaeology]
*Steve Archer, "About Phytoliths": http://research.history.org/Archaeological_Research/Collections/CollArchaeoBot/PhytoFAQs.cfm .
*Terry B. Ball, "Phytolith Literature Review": http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/ben282.html .
*Paleoresearch Institute, "Guide to Archaeobotany": http://www.paleoresearch.com/ .
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