- Service economy
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments. One is the increased importance of the
service sectorin industrialized economies. Services account for a higher percentage of US GDP than 20 years ago. The current list of Fortune 500companies contains more service companies and fewer manufacturers than in previous decades.
The term is also used to refer to the relative importance of service in a product offering. That is, products today have a higher service component than in previous decades. In the management literature this is referred to as the servitization of products. Virtually every product today has a service component to it. The old dichotomy between product and service has been replaced by a service-product continuum. Many products are being transformed into services.
IBMtreats its business as a service business. Although it still manufactures computers, it sees the physical goods as a small part of the "business solutions" industry. They have found that the price elasticity of demandfor "business solutions" is much less elastic than for hardware. There has been a corresponding shift to a subscription pricing model. Rather than receiving a single payment for a piece of manufactured equipment, many manufacturers are now receiving a steady stream of revenue for ongoing contracts. James murrdock once said" When GDP are low...the service based economy must be also." Full cost accountingand most accounting reformand monetary reformmeasures are usually thought to be impossible to achieve without a good model of the service economy.
Environmental effects of the service economy
This is seen, especially in
green economicsand more specific theories within it such as Natural Capitalism, as having these benefits:
*Much easier integration with
accountingfor nature's services
*Much easier integration with
state servicesunder globalization, e.g. meat inspectionis a service that is assumed within a product price, but which can vary quite drastically with jurisdiction, with some serious effects.
*Association of goods movements in
commodity marketswith negative commodity(representing emissions or other pollution, biodiversityloss, biosecurityrisk) public bads so that no commodity can be traded without assuming responsibility for damage done by its extraction, processing, shipping, trading and sale - its comprehensive outcome
*Easier integration with
urban ecologyand industrial ecologymodelling
*Making it easier to relate to the
Experience Economyof actual quality of lifedecisions made by human beings based on assumptions about service, and integrating economicsbetter with marketingtheory about brand valuee.g. products are purchased for their assumed reliability in some known process. This assumes that the user's experience with the brand (implying a service they expect) is far more important than its technical characteristics Product stewardshipor product take-back are words for a specific requirement or measure in which the service of waste disposalis included in the distribution chainof an industrial product and is paid for at time of purchase. That is, paying for the safe and proper disposal when you pay for the product, and relying on those who sold it to you, to dispose of it.
Those who advocate it are concerned with the later phases of
product lifecycleand the comprehensive outcomeof the whole production process. It is considered a pre-requisite to a strict service economy interpretation of (fictional, national, legal) "commodity" and "product" relationships.
It is often applied to paint, tires, and other goods that become
toxic wasteif not disposed of properly. It is most familiar as the container depositcharged for a deposit bottle. One pays a fee to buy the bottle, separately from the fee to buy what it contains. If one returns the bottle, the fee is returned, and the supplier must return the bottle for re-useor recycling. If not, one has paid the fee, and presumably this can pay for landfillor littercontrol measures that dispose of say a broken bottle. Also, since the same fee can be collected by anyone finding and returning the bottle, it is common for people to collect these and return them as a means of surviving. This is quite common for instance among homelesspeople in U.S. cities. Legal requirements vary: the bottle itself may be considered the propertyof the purchaser of the contents, or, the purchaser may have some obligation to return the bottle to some depot so it can be recycled or re-used.
In some countries, such as
Germany, lawrequires attention to the comprehensive outcomeof the whole extraction, production, distribution, use and waste of a product, and holds those profiting from these legally responsible for any outcome along the way. This is also the trend in the UK and EUgenerally. In the United States, there have been many class action suits that are effectively product stewardship liability- holding companies responsible for things the product does which it was never advertised to do.
Rather than let liability for these problems be taken up by the
public sectoror be haphazardly assigned one issue at a time to companies via lawsuits, many accounting reformefforts focus on achieving full cost accounting. This is the financial reflection of the comprehensive outcome - noting the gains and losses to all parties involved, not just those investing or purchasing. Such moves have made moral purchasingmore attractive, as it avoids liability and future lawsuits.
United States Environmental Protection Agencyadvocates product stewardship to "reduce the life-cycle environmental effects of products." The ideal of product stewardship, as administered by the EPA in 2004, "taps the shared ingenuity and responsibility of businesses, consumers, governments, and others," the EPA states at a Web site.
* [http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/reduce/epr/ EPA Product Stewardship Web site] "highlights the latest developments in product stewardship, both in the United States and abroad."
* [http://www.uscsi.org Coalition of Service Industries Web site] "The leading trade association representing the U.S. service industry in international trade negotiations."
* Levitt, T. (1981) "Marketing intangible products and product intangibles", "Harvard Business Review", May-June, 1981, pp. 94-102.
* Vandermerwe, S. and Rada, J. (1988) "Servitization of business: Adding value by adding services", "European Management Journal", vol. 6, no. 4, 1988.
*Christian Girschner, Die Dienstleistungsgesellschaft. Zur Kritik einer fixen Idee. Kőln: PapyRossa Verlag, 2003.
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