- Greater Prairie Chicken
name = Greater Prairie Chicken
status = VU | status_system = IUCN3.1
image_caption = Greater Prairie Chicken
(Photo by South Dakota Tourism)
phylum = Chordata
genus = "
species = "T. cupido"
binomial = "Tympanuchus cupido"
binomial_authority = (Linnaeus, 1758)
subdivision_ranks = Subspecies
Tympanuchus cupido attwateri" "Tympanuchus cupido cupido"† " Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus"
The Greater Prairie Chicken, "Tympanuchus cupido", is a large
birdin the grousefamily. This North American specieswas once abundant, but has become extremely rare or extinct over much of its range due to habitat loss. There are current efforts to help this species gain the numbers that it once had. One of the most famous aspects of these creatures is the mating ritualcalled booming.
Adults of both sexes are convert|14|in|mm long, medium sized, stocky, and round-winged. Their tails are short, round, and dark. Adult males have yellow-orange comb over their eyes. Males also have dark, elongated head
feathers that can be raised or lain along neck. A circular, orange unfeathered neck patch can be inflated while displaying. Adult females have shorter head feathers and lack the male's yellow comb and orange neck patch.
There are three subspecies;
Heath Hen, "Tympanuchus cupido cupido," which was historically found along the Atlantic coast is extinct. It was possibly a distinct species; in this case the two other forms would be "T. pinnatus pinnatus" and "T. p. attwateri".
Attwater's Prairie Chicken, "T. c. attwateri" is endangered and restricted to coastal Texas.
* The Greater Prairie Chicken, "T. c. pinnatus", is now restricted to a small section of its former range.
Population and habitat
Greater Prairie Chickens prefer undisturbed
prairieand were originally found in tall grass prairies. They can tolerate agricultural land mixed with prairie, but the more agricultural land the less prairie chicken. Their diet consists primarily of seeds and fruitbut during the summer they also eat insects and green plants. These birds were once widespread all across the oak savannaand tall grass prairie ecosystem. The prairie chicken was almost extinct in the 1930s due to hunting pressure and habitat loss. They now only live on small parcels of managed prairie land. It is thought that their current population is about 459,000 individuals. In May 2000, the Canadian Species at Risk Act listed the Greater Prairie-Chicken as extirpated in its Canadian range ( Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario) [cite web
title = Species at Risk - Greater Prairie Chicken
date = 2006-05-08
url = http://www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/search/speciesDetails_e.cfm?SpeciesID=35
accessdate = 2007-08-16 ] .
The Prairie chickens are not threatened by severe winter weather. When the snow is thick they "dive" in to the snow to keep warm. A greater threat to the prairie chickens comes in the spring rains. These sometimes drenching rains can wreak havoc on their chicks. Another major natural threat is
drought. A drought can destroy food and make it difficult for the chicks.
Human interactions are by far the greatest threat. The conversion of native prairie to cropland is very detrimental to these birds. It was found in a radio telemetry study conducted by
Kansas State Universitythat "most prairie chicken hens avoided nesting or rearing their broods within a quarter-mile of power lines and within a third-mile of improved roads." (Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks) It was also found that the chickens avoided communication towers and rural farms.
Greater Prairie Chickens do not migrate. They are territorial birds and often defend their booming grounds. These booming grounds are the area in which they perform their displays in hopes of attracting females. Their displays consist of inflating air sacs located on the side of their neck and snapping their tails. These booming grounds usually have very short or no vegetation. The male prairie chickens stay on this ground displaying for almost two months. The breeding season usually begins in the United States starting in Late March throughout April. During this time the males establish booming sites where they display for the females. The one or two most dominant males will do about 90% of the mating. After mating has taken place, the females will move about one mile from the booming grounds and begin to build their nests. Hens lay between 5 and 17 eggs per clutch and the eggs take between 23 and 24 days to hatch. There are between five and 10 young per brood. (INRIN, 2005). The young are raised by the female and
fledgein one to four weeks, are completely independent by the tenth to twelfth week, and reach sexual maturity by age one (Ammann, 1957). One problem facing prairie chickens is the ring neck pheasants. Pheasants will lay their eggs in prairie chicken nest. The pheasant eggs hatch first; this causes the prairie chickens to leave the nest thinking that the young have hatched. In reality the eggs did not hatch and the young usually die because the mother is not there to incubatethe eggs.
Lesser Prairie Chicken
* ARKive - [http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/birds/Tympanuchus_cupido/ images and movies of the greater prairie chicken "(Tympanuchus cupido)"]
* Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is vulnerable and the criteria used
* Canadian Meusum of Nature (2000): Greater Prairie Chickens. Downloaded from http://www.nature.ca/NOTEBOOKS/ENGLISH/grtchick.htm
* Gunderson, Dan. “Prairie chickens booming again.” Minnesota Public Radio (2006) http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2006/04/18/prairiechickencomeback/
* Ammann, G. A. 1957 The prairie grouse of Michigan. Michigan Dept. Consew. Tech. Bull.
* Illinois Natural Resource Information Network: Greater Prairie Chickens: Downloaded from http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/chf/pub/ifwis/birds/greater-prairie-chicken.html
* Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks: Greater and Lesser Prairie Chickens: Download from: http://www.kdwp.state.ks.us/news/hunting/upland_birds/greater_and_lesser_prairie_chicken
* [http://www.heathhen.webs.com Comparative Analysis between the Greater Prairie Chicken and the Extinct Heath Hen]
* [http://www.birds.cornell.edu/AllAboutBirds/BirdGuide/Greater_Prairie-Chicken.html Cornell Lab of Ornithology - Greater Prairie Chicken]
* [http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/id/framlst/i3050id.html USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter - Greater Prairie Chicken]
* [http://www.nature.org/animals/birds/animals/gprairiechicken.html The Nature Conservancy's Grassland Birds: Greater Prairie Chicken]
* [http://www.sdakotabirds.com/species/greater_prairie_chicken_info.htm South Dakota Birds and Birding - Greater Prairie Chicken]
* [http://www.gbwf.org/grouse/cupido.html gbwf.org - Greater Prairie Chicken]
* [http://enature.com/fieldguides/detail.asp?allSpecies=y&searchText=greater%20prairie%20chicken&curGroupID=1&lgfromWhere=&curPageNum=1 eNature.com - Greater Prairie Chicken]
* [http://www.bird-stamps.org/cspecies/3601600.htm Stamps] (for
* [http://vireo.acnatsci.org/search.html?Form=Search&SEARCHBY=Scientific&KEYWORDS=tympanuchus+cupido&showwhat=images&AGE=All&SEX=All&ACT=All&Search=Search&VIEW=All&ORIENTATION=All&RESULTS=24 Greater Prairie Chicken photo gallery] VIREO
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Look at other dictionaries:
greater prairie chicken — noun the most common variety of prairie chicken • Syn: ↑Tympanuchus cupido • Hypernyms: ↑prairie chicken, ↑prairie grouse, ↑prairie fowl * * * noun see prairie chicken * * * … Useful english dictionary
greater prairie-chicken — didysis prerinis tetervinas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Tympanuchus cupido angl. greater prairie chicken vok. Präriehuhn, n rus. луговой тетерев, m pranc. tétras des prairies, m ryšiai: platesnis terminas – preriniai… … Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas
greater prairie chicken. — See under prairie chicken (def. 1). * * * … Universalium
greater prairie chicken. — See under prairie chicken (def. 1) … Useful english dictionary
Prairie Chicken — refers to several birds in the genus Tympanuchus :*Greater Prairie Chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido ) **Attwater s Prairie Chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri ) **Heath Hen ( Tympanuchus cupido cupido ) ** Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus *Lesser… … Wikipedia
prairie chicken — 1. either of two North American gallinaceous birds of western prairies, Tympanuchus cupido (greater prairie chicken), or T. pallidicinctus (lesser prairie chicken), having rufous, brown, black, and white plumage. 2. See sharp tailed grouse. Also… … Universalium
prairie chicken — noun brown mottled North American grouse of western prairies • Syn: ↑prairie grouse, ↑prairie fowl • Hypernyms: ↑grouse • Hyponyms: ↑greater prairie chicken, ↑Tympanuchus cupido, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
prairie chicken — noun Either of two species of flightless bird of the genus Tympanuchus, native to the prairies of North America, the greater and lesser prairie chickens … Wiktionary
Lesser Prairie Chicken — Taxobox name = Lesser Prairie Chicken image width = 200px image caption = Lesser Prairie Chicken USFWS photo status = VU status system = iucn3.1 regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Aves subclassis = Neornithes infraclassis = Neognatha… … Wikipedia
prairie fowl — noun brown mottled North American grouse of western prairies • Syn: ↑prairie chicken, ↑prairie grouse • Hypernyms: ↑grouse • Hyponyms: ↑greater prairie chicken, ↑Tympanuchus cupido, ↑ … Useful english dictionary