The River War


The River War

Infobox Book
name = The River War: An Historical Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan
title_orig =
translator =


image_caption = 1899 unabridged, two-volume edition
author = Winston Churchill
illustrator = Angus McNeill
cover_artist =
country = United Kingdom
language = English
series =
subject = Mahdist War
genre = Military history
publisher = Longmans, Green and Co.
pub_date = 1899
english_pub_date =
media_type = Hardcover
pages = Vol I 462
isbn =
oclc = 2704682
preceded_by =
followed_by =

"The River War: An Historical Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan" is an 1899 book written by Winston Churchill while he was still an officer in the British army.

The book provides a history of the British involvement in the Sudan and the conflict between the British forces led by Lord Kitchener and Dervish forces led by Khalifa Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, heir to the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad who had embarked on a campaign to conquer Egypt, to drive out the non-Muslim infidels and make way for the second coming of the Islamic Mahdi.

"The River War" was Churchill's second published book after "The Story of the Malakand Field Force", and originally filled two volumes with over 1000 pages in 1899. "The River War" was subsequently abridged to one volume in 1902.

Background

Aware that there was a war in Sudan, Churchill determined to be part of it. He was not alone in this, because in a time generally of peace, many British army officers wanted experience of battle to further their careers. In Churchill's case, he did not see his career as lying with the army, but had already started writing about wars and wanted a new campaign to write about. He first attempted to obtain a transfer from his regiment stationed in India to the 21st Lancers, which was the unit taking part in the war. This was granted by the War office, but rejected by the commander of the British force in Sudan, General Kitchener. Churchill next took leave to Britain, where he enlisted friends and family to lobby Kitchener to permit him to take part. This continued to be unsuccessful, even when the prime minister Lord Salisbury made an inquiry on his behalf. Eventually, however, he prevailed upon Sir Evelyn Wood, Adjutant General of the Horse Guards, who had authority over appointments to the regiment in England, and he received an attachment to the Lancers in place of an officer who had died, on July 24, 1898. On August 5 he was in Luxor and on August 24 the regiment set out from Atbara to attack the Mahdist forces. [Cite book |title=Churchill |author= Roy Jenkins |publisher=Macmillan |year= 2001 | isbn= 0333782909 |place=London | page=38-39] [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=122]

Before leaving London, Churchill obtained a commission to write accounts of the war for the "Morning Post", producing thirteen articles between September 23 and October 8, 1898 for which he was paid fifteen pounds each. [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=125] This helped offset his expenses for the trip, which the war office had declined to meet, as well as refusing any liability should he be killed or injured. [Cite book |title=Churchill |author= Roy Jenkins |publisher=Macmillan |year= 2001 | isbn= 0333782909 |place=London | page=39] "The Times" had two corresponds covering the war, one of whom was killed and another injured, and Churchill wrote a piece for this newspaper also, but Kitchener vetoed sending of the report. [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=124]

After the battle of Omdurman the Lancers were ordered to return to other duties so Churchill's personal experience of the war ceased at that point. Although Omdurman had been taken from Khalifa Abdullahi, the Khalifa himself escaped and was not captured for another year. [Cite book |title=Churchill |author= Roy Jenkins |publisher=Macmillan |year= 2001 | isbn= 0333782909 |place=London | page=41] The campaign included a number of persons who were to play important parts in the First World War. Aside from Churchill and Kitchener, captains Douglas Haig and Henry Rawlinson became generals in the war, while lieutenant David Beatty then commanding a Nile gunboat became an admiral and Commanded the British Grand Fleet. [Cite book |title=Churchill |author= Roy Jenkins |publisher=Macmillan |year= 2001 | isbn= 0333782909 |place=London | page=40]

Churchill returned to England to complete his leave, before returning to India for three months and finally resigning from the army. As a direct result of Churchill's writings, a rule was introduced prohibiting serving officers from also acting as war correspondents. This was one factor contributing to his leaving the army, since his earnings from writing were some five times greater than his army pay during his three years of army service. [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=125-126]

In India Churchill visited the Viceroy, Lord Curzon, who had himself written a history of "Persia and the Persian Question" eight years before. He read everything he could find containing background information about the Sudan. On the way home he stopped for two weeks in Egypt to visit Lord Cromer, then in charge of the Egyptian government, who read through the text and made suggestions and corrections. In particular, playing down the popular impression of General Charles George Gordon, murdered by the Mahdi fourteen years before, as a hero. While in Cairo he spoke to Slatin Pasha, author of a work about the Sudan, Sir Reginald Wingate Director of Intelligence on Kitchener's staff, Edouard Girouard responsible for building railways through Egypt which allowed the British advance, and others who had played some part. [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=129] Sailing home across the Mediterranean, Churchill had as a fellow passenger George Warrington Steevens, who was also a war correspondent, working for the "Daily Telegraph". They had met on a couple of previous occasions, and Churchill prevailed upon him also to read the manuscript. His suggestion was to reduce the degree of philosophising, that despite the accuracy of Churchill's commentary it might bore the reader. [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=134]

Content

In vivid style the book describes the background to the war, the relationship of the Upper Nile to Egypt, the murder of General Charles George Gordon in the siege at Khartoum, the political reaction in England, and Kitchener's elaborate preparations for the war. While in the Sudan Churchill participated in the Battle of Omdurman. Churchill comments at length on the mechanization of war with use of the telegraph, railroad, and a new generation of weaponry.

1899 unabridged, two-volume edition

The unabridged version contains many illustrations with drawings, photogravures, and colored maps. It also contains vivid narratives of personal adventures of the author, his views on British expansionism, passages of deep reflection about the requirements of a civilized government, criticism of military and political leaders and religion. [*cite book | last = Langworth | first = Richard | title = A Connoisseur's Guide to the Books of Sir Winston Churchill: Produced in Association with the Churchill Centre | publisher = Brassey's | location = London | year = 1998 | isbn = 9781857532463 | page = 24] The first edition was reviewed by "The Times", which described it as containing material sufficient for two good books and one bad one, with the bad one being the more interesting. ["The Times", November 6, 1899.]

About Mohammedanism he wrote:

About the British attitude to war:

About the modern machinery of war and its effectiveness against native tribesmen:

Churchill spread his criticisms wherever he found fault. A passage was highly critical of General Kitchener for ordering the desecration of the Madhi's tomb and carrying off his head as a trophy. The head was returned by the order of Lord Cromer, once he discovered what had happened. The matter was debated in parliament and led to a newspaper campaign against Kitchener as well as deepening the ill feeling which already existed between two men who as members of the British government in 1914 were expected to cooperate militarily as heads of the army and navy departments. All reference to the incident was removed from the second edition. [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=131]

Criticisms extended to the supplies for the troops: British soldiers were sent out from England with boots made substantially from cardboard, which rapidly disintegrated and had to be bound with cloth or string to hold them together. While the Indian army was equipped with highly effective dum-dum bullets produced in India, British bullets sent to Egypt were simply pointed, and 1,000,000 rounds had to have their ends filed off to increase their effectiveness. The rough remodelling meant the bullets were inaccurate at long ranges, giving soldiers a choice of bullets able to hit their target but only wound, or killing bullets which were likely to miss and could jam the guns. [The River War Vol. I, p.367] Railway engines needed to carry troops and supplies into Sudan had to be obtained from all over the world as British companies were unable to supply at short notice. By contrast, American companies could supply locomotives immediately which were more effective and cheaper than some obtained from England. [The River War Vol. I, p.298]

1902 abridged, one-volume edition

In 1902 Churchill had become a member of parliament. It was thought that the commentary about some of the people mentioned had better be excised in a revised edition. The book was thus edited down to one single volume, removing approximately one third of the total.

Much of the removed content included passages where Churchill recounted his own experiences, as he had done in other works, such as "The Story of the Malakand Field Force". This removal gave the revised book a somewhat different feel to these others, and to its original form. Other removals included discussions on the ethics of warfare and Churchill's own opinions of events. The revised book was described as an authoritative history of the war. [cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961 | page=133] The book was republished numerous times over the twentieth century, with increasing amounts of excisions.

References

*cite book|author=Winston S. Churchill| title=The River War (first edition, two volumes)|location=London |publisher= Longmans, Green & Co. |year= 1899
*cite book | last = Langworth | first = Richard | title = A Connoisseur's Guide to the Books of Sir Winston Churchill: Produced in Association with the Churchill Centre | publisher = Brassey's | location = London | year = 1998 | isbn = 9781857532463
*cite book|author= Peter de Menddelssohn| title=The Age of Churchill: Heritage and Adventure 1874-1911 |publisher= Thames and Hudson |place=London |year=1961
*Cite book |title=Churchill |author= Roy Jenkins |publisher=Macmillan |year= 2001 | isbn= 0333782909 |place=London

External links

* [http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=4943 The River War from Project Gutenberg On-line Books The 1902 abridged edition can be downloaded in text format here]
* [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=2&res=9405E6DC1239E733A25755C0A9679C946197D6CF&oref=slogin&oref=slogin New York Times 1900 Review of "The River War"]
* [http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/onprin/v9n5/hayward.html A Churchillian Perspective on September 11 with a review of "The River War"]


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