Jain monasticism

Jain monasticism

Jain Muni or simply Muni is the term often used for Jain monks [Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India By John E. Cort, Published 2001Oxford University PressUS] .

A Jain monk does not have a permanent home and does not have any possessions. He wanders barefoot from place to place except for the four months of the rainy season. A Jain monk is not a priest; rather he is himself a worshipped one.

A full Jain monk in either Svetambar or Digambar tradition [ Guardians of the Transcendent: An Ethnography of a Jain Ascetic Community By Anne Vallely Published 2002University of TorontoPress] can belong to one of these ranks:

* Acharya: leader of the order
* Upadhyaya: a learned monk, who both teaches and studies himself
* Muni: an ordinary monk

Thse three are mentioned is the three lines of the Namokar Mantra.

In the Digambar tradition, a junior monk can be a:

* Ailak: they use one piece of cloth
* Kshullak: they may use two pieces of clothThe Svetambar Terapanthi sect has a new rank of junior monks who are called samana.

The nuns are called Aryikas in Digambar tradition and Sadhvi in the Svetambar tradition.

Famous historical Jain monks

Some of the famous Jain Acharyas in approximate chronological order, are:

* Gautam Ganadhara
* Ganahar Sudharma Swami
* Jambu Swami [The Lives of the Jain Elders, Hemachandra, Trans. RCC Fynes, Oxford World's Classics, 1998.]
* Bhadrabahu (undivided sangha, Chandragupta Maurya was his disciple) (325 BCE)
*Sthulabhadra (Svetambar tradition)
*Kundakunda, (Digambar tradition) (2nd century CE)
* Samantabhadra, (Digambar tradition) (3-4 rth century CE)
* Siddhasen Diwakar, (claimed by both) (5nd century CE)
* Manatunga composer of Bhaktamar Stotra, (claimed by both)
*Haribhadra,(Svetambar tradition), (700-750 CE)
*Akalanka, (Digambar tradition), (620-680 CE)
*Virasena, (Digambar tradition), (790-825 CE)
*Jinasena, (Digambar tradition), preceptor of Rashtrakuta rulers, (800-880 CE).
*Nemichandra, (Digambar tradition)
*Hemachandra,(Svetambar tradition), preceptor of Kumarapala, (1089–1172 CE)
*Jagadguru Hira Vijaya Suri, (Svetambar tradition), who was invited by Akbar, the Mughal emperor
*Rajendrasuri (Svetambar tradition)(1827-1906)
*Shantisagar, (Digambar tradition) (1872-1955)
*Acharya Vidyasagar, (Digambar tradition) (Born 1946)

Famous historical Jain nuns

* Aryika Chandanbala
* Sadhvi Yakini Mahattara

Famous modern Jain monks

Some famous Jain monks currently living (sadhu or muni or maharaj) are as follows:
* [http://sadhu.jinvani.com/index.php?s_id_list=1&sadhu_id=0&page=0&mod=sadhu_list List of All Digamber Jain Monks] With detailed discription
* [http://sadhu.jinvani.com/index.php?s_id_list=1&sadhu_id=50&page=0&mod=sadhu_detail Acharya Vidyanandaji]
* Acharya Vidyasagarji [http://vidyasagarji.jainsadhu.com Aacharya Shri VidyaSagarJi Maharaj]
* [http://www.munipulaksagar.com/inspiration.html Aacharya Shri Pushpadant Sagar Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.munipulaksagar.com Muni Shri 108 Pulak Sagar Ji Maharaj]
*Upadhyaya Muni Guptisagar ji [http://www.guptisagardham.com/about.htm Muni Shri 108 Gupti Sagar Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.munipramansagar.com Muni Shri 108 Praman Sagar Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.muniarunsagar.com Muni Shri 108 Arun Sagar Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.jainmuniprakarshsagarji.com Muni Shri 108 Prakarsh Sagar Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.jainacharyadevnandiji.com Acharya Shri 108 Dev Nandi Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.acharyagyanbhushan.com Acharya Shri 108 Gyan Bhusan Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.acharyasukumalnandi.com Acharya Shri 108 Sukumal Nandi Ji Maharaj]
* [http://www.girnargaurav.com Muni Shri 108 Nayan Sagar Ji Maharaj]
*Acharya Tulsi
*Acharya Mahaprajna
* [http://www.vivarjansagar.com/acharya.asp Acharya viragsagarji maharaj ]
* [http://www.vivarjansagar.com Parampoojya Gurudev Shri 108 Vivarjan Sagar Munimaharaj] ACHARYA KAILASHSAGAR SURIand SHRI PADMASAGAR SURI

Famous modern Jain nuns

* Ganani Arika Ratna 105 Vijayamathi Mataji
* Ganini Pramukh Shri Gyanmati Mataji
* Sadhvi Acharya Chandana [http://www.veerayatan.org/2b.htm Acharya Shri Chandanaji (1937-), Founder, Chief Director]

Chaturmas (VarshaYog) for Jain Monks

Chaturmas means the four months of the monsoon, a practice observed by both Digamber and Shwetamber Jain monks and nuns. Chaturmas is related to the staying of the Jain monks and nuns in one place during this period. Because during this time the Jain monks and nuns have settled in the city/town for a longer duration, it is a suitable time for the householders to have an annual renewal of the faith by listening to the statement of the Dharma and by meditation and vartas (self-control). And for the Jain monks, almost as importantly, staying in one place during the monsoon reduces the risk of causing accidental death to numerous insects and smaller forms of life that thrive during the rains.

[http://www.jinvani.com See Chaturmas information of Jain Monks & Nuns 2008]

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