- Fort William Henry
The British Fort William Henry on the shores of Lake George,
New York(NY), was built during the French and Indian War( 1754- 1763) by Sir William Johnsonas a staging ground for attacks against the French Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga). It was part of a chain of British and French forts along the important inland waterway from New York Cityto Quebec. Fort William Henry was named both for Prince William, the Duke of Cumberland, the younger son of King George II, and Prince William Henry, the Duke Gloucester, a grandson of King George II and a younger brother of the future King George III. (For information on the name of the fort, see Fred Anderson, "Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754 to 1766" (New York: Vintage Books, 2000), page 123.)
Operations at the fort
Fort William Henry was commanded by the
British Armyofficer, Lieutenant-Colonel George Monro.
Contrary to popular belief, during the siege most of the soldiers of Fort William Henry were camped outside the fort at the eastern end behind hastily dug trenches. The fort held the
garrisonof regular British troops, the exterior camp was for colonial militiamen. Prior to its destruction Fort William Henry was also the staging point for Rogers' Rangers. By the time the siege began Monro had under his command around 2,200 men consisting of the 35th Regiment of Foot, elements of the 60th Foot and the New Hampshire Provincial Regimentalong with militia from New Jerseyand Massachusetts.Fact|date=July 2007
Battle of Fort William Henry
The fort was attacked by the French in August
1757. Following a heavy bombardment and siegeby French troops under the command of General Marquis de Montcalm, the garrison was forced to surrender when their relief columns from the south could not break through the attackers. French forces totaled some 8,000 consisting of about 3,000 regulars, 3,000 militia and nearly 2,000 Native Americans.Fact|date=July 2007
The Fort William Henry massacre
After the surrender to the French on very generous terms, the Indian allies of the French began to attack the British and colonial column leaving the fort. They had been expecting payment for their assistance in the form of loot, captives, and scalps and were severely disappointed at the lenient surrender terms. Many people were killed, captured, or stripped of belongings. The severity of the attack on the surrendered troops, called the "Fort William Henry Massacre", was later exaggerated for propaganda purposes. Some contemporary reports claim as many as 1500 killed, but modern scholars put the number at 70-180 dead. (See Ian K. Steele, "Betrayals: Fort William Henry & the "Massacre" (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 78-128.) Historians note that it is likely that Montcalm tried to prevent the attack, but probably did not have the means to stop it by force.Fact|date=July 2007 The French soldiers escorted the survivors to Fort Edward following the massacre.
It has been suggested that this massacre and the associated propaganda are the reasons for the British army's reluctance to ever surrender to the French during the
Seven Years' War, even when in an untenable position. This fact was a constant cause of annoyance to the French.Fact|date=July 2007
The victors also dug up the graves of people who had died during the siege, infecting themselves and others with
Smallpoxas they attempted to scalp the corpses and steal valuables. The French finally burned the fort and retreated to Fort Carillon.Fact|date=July 2007
The fort today
A replica of Fort William Henry now stands in its place, and is a popular tourist attraction in the village of Lake George, NY.
"Last of the Mohicans"
The fall of Fort William Henry is the focus of the epic
novel" The Last of the Mohicans" by James Fenimore Cooper, first published in January 1826.
* [http://www.militaryheritage.com/wm_henry.htm An Account of the Two Attacks on Fort William Henry 1757]
* [http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1175.html Fort William Henry massacre]
* [http://www.fwhmuseum.com/ Fort William Henry Museum]
* [http://www.lakegeorgehistorical.org Lake George Historical Association]
* [http://www.btinternet.com/%7Ethe35thfootproject/history.html History of the 35th Foot]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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Battle of Fort William Henry — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Fort William Henry partof=the French and Indian War caption=Plan of Fort William Henry and Camp at Lake George date=August 3 9, 1757 place=Lake George, New York casus= territory= result=French victory; … Wikipedia