- King of Hungary
The King of Hungary ( _hu. magyar király) was the
head of stateof the Kingdom of Hungaryfrom 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
Before the 11th century, the head of the federation of the Magyar tribes was the High Prince. The first King of Hungary, Stephen I was crowned on
25 December 1000(or 1 January 1001) with the crown Pope Sylvester IIhad sent him with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor.
Following King Stephen I's coronation, all the
monarchs of Hungary used the title of king. Although Stephen Bocskaiand Francis II Rákócziwere proclaimed Princes of Hungary, their legitimacy was not generally accepted, even in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Kings of Hungary were sovereign
monarchs, "ie", they did not submit themselves to others. Although Emperors and Sultans of the Ottoman Empire sometimes claimed supremacy over them, but only some of the kings, and only in specific historical situations, paid homage to foreign monarchs.
The Kings of Hungary, as heads of the "Archiregnum Hungaricum" ("High Kingdom of Hungary"), also tried to extend their supremacy over the rulers of the neighboring countries and provinces during the 13th-16th centuries. Although these claims were usually rejected, some foreign
monarchs were obliged to swear fidelity to the King of Hungary. In any case, these rulers have to be differentiated from the dignitaries of the Kingdom of Hungarywho governed provinces (e.g., Transylvania, Croatia, Slavoniaand Dalmatia), since the latter were not vassals but high-officers of the kings.
From 1097 onwards, the Kings of Hungary were also
Kings of Croatia, because of the political unionof the two states. During the rule of the Habsburgs, a real uniondeveloped step by step between the Lands of the Holy Crown and the other countries and provinces of the royal house, but it never became a political union. ["(...) the countries and provinces which are under the rule of one common monarch, pursuant to the established order of succession, are to be held together indivisibly and inseparably. Based on this principle declared definitely, the future defence and maintenance of the common security by making joint efforts is a common and mutual obligation (...). However, besides this established obligation, the" pragmatica sanctio "also reserved, definitely, that Hungary's constitutional independence, under the public law and also relating to the internal affairs, is to be maintained without injury." (Sections 2 and 3 of Article XII of 1867).]
Claims to supremacy over them
Holy Roman Emperors
In 1045, King Peter I paid homage to
Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, but the king was dethroned in 1046, and his successor, King Andrew I of Hungaryrefused the Emperor's supremacy. The Emperor's successor, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperorof Germanyacknowledged the independence of the kingdom in the peace concluded with Andrew I in 1058.
Solomon of Hungaryalso swore allegiance to Emperor Henry IV in 1074, but by that time he had been ruling over only some counties of the kingdom and he abdicated in 1081. King Solomon's opponent, King Ladislaus I of Hungarynever recognised the Emperor's claims.
During the Mongol invasion of Hungary ( _hu. tatárjárás), in 1241, King
Béla IV of Hungaryaccepted Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor's supremacy hoping that the Emperor would provide him military assistance against the Mongols. But Frederick II did not intervene in the struggle, and Béla IV was later absolved of his oath by Pope Innocent IVin 1245. Eventually, King Rudolf I of Germanyreferred to Béla IV's homage when he invested, in 1290, his son, Duke Albert I of Germanywith the Kingdom of Hungarythat he regarded as a derelict fiefdomafter King Ladislaus IV of Hungary's death. Finally, Duke Albert I waived his claim, already in 1291, in the peace he concluded with King Andrew III of Hungary.
Holy Roman Emperors never claimed the allegiance of the Kings of Hungary.
Byzantine Emperors, as heirs to the ancient Roman Emperors, tended to regard themselves as heads of the Christian Commonwealth"(oikumené)". [Obolensky, Dimitri: "The Byzantine Commonwealth".] However, they could rarely enforce their claims. Although, King Stephen IV of Hungaryswore allegiance to Emperor Manuel I Komnenosin 1163, but only after he had been expelled from Hungary.
ultans of the Ottoman Empire
In 1529, King
János Szapolyaivisited Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who had been supported him against his opponent, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and swore allegiance to him. Based on this oath, Sultan Suleiman I, having occupied the Central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, invested, in 1541, King János Szapolyai's son King John II Sigismund Zápolyawith the Eastern territories of the kingdom, and the young king governed his realm by the Sultan's grace. However, King János Szapolyai's and King John II Sigismund's rule extended only over parts of the kingdom, and their opponents from the House of Habsburgnever accepted the Sultan's supremacy.
In 1605, Sultan
Ahmed Isent a royal crown to Stephen Bocskai, who had been proclaimed Prince of Hungaryby the Estates, but Stephen Bocskai never was proclaimed king and crowned.
Bans and Kings of Bosnia
From the 12th century onward, the Kings of Hungary were high-officers of the bans of Bosnia, but the bans were, in practice, elected by the local nobility. The first ban who swore allegiance to a king, (
Emeric of Hungary) was Ban Kulinin 1203, but during the 13th century the supremacy of the Kings of Hungary over Bosnia was only theoretical.
Around 1323, Ban
Stephen II of Bosniapaid homage to King Charles I of Hungary. His successor Tvrtko I of Bosniaseparated from the Holy Crown of Hungaryand even had himself crowned the King of Bosnia in 1377. In 1394, King Stjepan Dabišaswore allegiance to Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, but his successors (Tvrtko II, Stjepan Ostoja) and their powerful vassals (Dukes Hrvoje Vukčićand Sandalj Hranić) often turned against the supremacy of the King of Hungary.
Finally, in 1425, King
Tvrtko II of Bosniawas reconciled with Sigismund I and from this reconciliation the kings of Bosnia were faithful vassals of the Kings of Hungary till the occupation of their kingdom by the Ottoman Empirein 1463. King Matthias Corvinus of Hungarygranted, in 1471, the empty title of "King of Bosnia" to one of the Hungarian magnates, Miklós Újlaki.
Despots and Tzars of Bulgaria
In 1266, King
Stephen V of Hungarycompelled Despot Jakov Svetoslav, who was ruling over Vidin, to swear allegiance to him, but after the king's death the rulers of Bulgariadid not accept the supremacy of the Kings of Hungary.
In 1369, King
Louis I of Hungaryconquered the Tsardom of Vidinof Tsar Ivan Stratsimir of Bulgariaand forced him to become his vassal. However four year later the Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Alexander took back his lands.
Chieftains of the Cumans
Bartz and Membrok, Chieftains of the Cuman tribes settled down in the territories west of the
DniesterRiver, were baptized and they acknowledged the overlordship of King Béla IV of Hungaryaround 1228. However, the Mongol invasion of Europeobliged the Cumans to take refuge in Hungary in 1241.
Despite a long series of conflicts with the Hungarians, the Cumans immigrated to Hungary, settling down in two regions, called
Voivodes and Princes of Moldavia
The territory of the future
Principality of Moldaviawas occupied by the troops of King Louis I of Hungaryin 1345 after a victory over the Mongols. The territory was governed by hereditary Voivodes who were vassals of the King of Hungary.
After 1359, when
Bogdan I of Moldaviaseized power, Moldaviaseceded from the Holy Crown of Hungary. In 1387, Voivode Petru I of Moldaviapaid homage to King Jogailaof Poland, but Voivode Stephen I of Moldavia was obliged to acknowledge the overlordship of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperoralthough the Hungarian supremacy over Moldaviawas only theoretical and the King of Hungary renounced it on behalf of King Jogaila in 1412.
In 1475, Prince Stephen V swore allegiance to King
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, but he accepted again the supremacy of King Casimir IV of Polandin 1485.
Princes and Despots of Serbia
In 1201 King
Emeric of Hungaryintervened in the struggles between Duke Vukan Nemanjićof Raška and his brother Duke Stefan Nemanjićfor the throne of that country on behalf of the former. Vukan II, when temporarily overcame his brother, acknowledged the overlordship of the King of Hungary, but finally Stefan II won over his brother and he refused the supremacy of foreign monarchs.
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperorof Hungary established the Order of the Dragonand Despot Stefan Lazarevićof Serbia was one of its founders. Sigismund I granted estates in Hungaryto Despot Stefan Lazarević who paid homage to him. Afterwards the rulers of Serbiawere wavering between the Kings of Hungary and the Ottoman Empiretill their country was occupied by the latter in 1459.
During the centuries, the Kings of Hungary acquired or claimed the crowns of several neighboring countries, and they began to use the royal titles connected to those countries. By the time of the last kings, their precise style was: "By the Grace of God, Apostolic King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Grand Prince of Transylvania, Count of the Szeklers".
Apostolic King" title was confirmed by Pope Clement XIIIin 1758 and used afterwards by all the Kings of Hungary.
The title of "King of Slavonia" referred to the territories between the
Dravaand the SavaRivers and was first used by Ladislaus I of Hungary. It was also Ladislaus I who adopted the title " King of Croatia" in 1091. Coloman of Hungaryadded the phrase "King of Dalmatia" to the royal style in 1105.
The title "King of Rama", referring to the claim to Bosnia, was firstly used by
Béla II of Hungaryin 1136. It was Emeric of Hungarywho adopted the title "King of Serbia". The phrase "King of Galicia" was used to indicate the supremacy over Halych, while the title "King of Lodomeria" referred to Volhynia; both titles were adopted by Andrew II of Hungaryin 1205. In 1233, Béla IV of Hungarybegan to use the title "King of Cumania" which expressed the rule over the territories settled by the Cumans(i.e., Wallachiaand Moldavia) at that time. The phrase "King of Bulgaria" was added to the royal style by Stephen V of Hungary. Transylvaniawas originally a province of the Kingdom of Hungary, but became a principalitysubordinated to the Ottoman Empireat the end of the 16th century, and to the King of Hungary in 1686. In 1696, after dethroning Prince Michael II Apafi, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperortook the title Prince of Transylvania. In 1765, Maria Theresa of Austriaelevated Transylvania to Grand Principality. The Count of the Szeklers( _hu. ispán) was originally a dignitary of the Kingdom of Hungary, but the title was later used by the Princes of Transylvania.
Ascending the throne
eniority or primogeniture—The Árpáds
Hungary was originally a hereditary kingship, but the order of succession was not clearly defined. The Hungarian tradition preferred
agnatic seniority"(senioratus)" which gave preference to the oldest patrilineal member of the royal family, while the Christiantradition supported the principle of primogeniturepursuant to which the eldest son of the deceased king inherited the throne. The two principles caused several civil wars during the 11th-12th centuries. Béla I, Ladislaus I, Ladislaus II and Stephen IV ascended the throne based on the principle of agnatic seniority, while other members of the Árpád dynastyinherited the throne from their fathers.
The cases of
Peter Urseoloand Samuel Aba of Hungarywere exceptional; the former (son of Stephen of Hungary's sister) was appointed to inherit the throne by Stephen I, while the latter (Stephen I's brother-in-law) was elected after Peter I's dethronement.
uccession or election—The 14th-16th centuries
When the male line of the
Árpád dynastyextinguished in 1301, all the claimants to the throne were matrilineal descendant of the dynasty. The struggle among the pretenders was taking place till 1310 when Charles I of Hungary, the great-grandson of Stephen V of Hungary, having been elected by the prelates, barons and nobles, was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary( _hu. Magyar Szentkorona).
During the reign of the
Capetian House of Anjouthe principle of succession was strengthening, and the Estates of the realmfollowed the principle even in the case of Louis I of Hungary's daughter Mary of Hungarywho ascended the throne after his father's death without any resistance in 1382. However, the transient success of Charles III of Naplesin 1385, who claimed the throne as the last male descendant of the Angevin dynasty, proved that public opinion was not in favor of women's succession.
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperorhimself also a (multiple) matrilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty, was proclaimed king by the Estates of the realm by the right of his wife, Queen Mary of Hungary, who had been arrested by the partisans of her opponent Charles III. However, when Queen Mary I died in 1395, the Estates refused the claims to the throne of her sister, Queen Jadwiga of Poland, and they confirmed the widowed Sigismund's reign. By this action, the principle of election overcame for the following three centuries.
Although, during the period, the Estates usually preferred the deceased king's son or other claimants connected to the royal family (i.e., sons-in-law or matrilineal descendants of previous kings) when deciding on the throne, but it was not a law.
Władysław III of Poland, for example, was proclaimed king against the deceased king's son, Ladislaus the Posthumousin 1440. He was, at least, a distant matrilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty, but in the case of Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, in 1458, the Estates preferred a person without any royal ancestry to the claimants descending from King Sigismund.
In 1505, the Diet passed a bill which prohibited the election of foreigners to the throne, but it would never received the Royal Assent. In practice, the bill was aimed at the exclusion of the members of the
House of Habsburgfrom the succession, but finally the Estates had to be reconciled to the reign of the foreign dynasty.
Because of the above-mentioned uncertainties around the order of succession, the kings endeavored to strengthen their heir's position; therefore they had their
heir apparentcrowned in their lifetime. The first example was Solomon of Hungary, the son of Andrew I of Hungary, who was crowned in 1057 when his father was still alive; however, this action could not rescue Solomon from the later dethronement.
A Junior King "(rex iunior)" usually did not exercise prerogative powers, with the exception of
Stephen V of Hungary, but in the 13th century he was entrusted with the government of certain provinces of the kingdom. The first example was Emeric of Hungarywho was governing Croatiaand Dalmatiawhen he was "rex iunior". The Junior Kings of Árpád dynastywere to be crowned again when ascended the throne after their father's death.
During the 14th to 15th centuries, the
heirs apparentwere never crowned while their predecessor was still alive. The custom revived only in 1508, when Louis II of Hungary and Bohemiawas crowned during his father's lifetime to ensure, despite of the strengthening of the principle of election, his succession. He and the later Junior Kings do not exercised prerogative powers before the death of their father and they were not crowned again.
After 1688, when the principle of
hereditary monarchywas enacted, the institution became unnecessary and disappeared. However, the last of the Junior Kings was Ferdinand I of Austria, crowned in 1830; he had been considered incapable of ruling, consequently confirmment of his succession rights by the ceremony seemed rational.
Victory of the hereditary monarchy—The Habsburgs
Although the Habsburgs deemed themselves as hereditary rulers of Hungary, the
Estates of the realminsisted on the principle of election. As a first step towards the revival of the hereditary monarchy, already in 1547, the Diet declared that the Estates had submitted themselves not only to Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperorbut also to his heirs. ["(...) the Estates of the realm have submitted themselves not only to His Majesty's, but also his heirs' power and rule for ever (...)" (Section 5 of Article V of 1547).]
However, the liberation of the Central and Eastern parts of the
Kingdom of Hungaryfrom the rule of the Ottoman Empirechanged radically the Estates' attitude towards the hereditary monarchy, and they declared the hereditary claims of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperorand his legitimate male descendants to the throne. ["(...) all the Estates of this Hungary and its connected parts reveal that they would accept, from now and for ever, nobody else than the first born among of the male heirs descending from the groins of the above-mentioned Imperial and Royal Majesty (...)" (Section 1 of Article II of 1687).] The hereditary claims were extended also to King Charles II of Spainand his legitimate male descendants, but the Estates of the realm reserved the right to elect a new king in case the male line both of Leopold I and King Charles II extinguished. [Article III of 1687.]
Moreover, in 1722, when it had become obvious that
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperorwould not father male descendants, the hereditary claims of the female descendants of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I and Joseph I were also confirmed by the Diet. [Article II of 1723.]
Legal requirements of reigning
By the end of the 13th century, the customs of the
Kingdom of Hungaryprescribed that all the following three requirements shall be fulfilled when a new king ascended the throne:
*coronation by the
Archbishop of Esztergom;
*coronation by the
Holy Crown of Hungary;
Székesfehérvár.Afterwards, from 1387 the customs also required the election of the new king. Although, this requirement disappeared when the principle of the hereditary monarchy overcome, but afterwards kings were required to issue a formal declaration "(credentionales litterae)" in which they swore on respecting the constitution of the kingdom.
The first requirement (coronation by the Archbishop of Esztergom) was confirmed by
Béla III of Hungary, who had been crowned by the Archbishop of Kalocsabased on the special authorisation of Pope Alexander III, but after his coronation he declared that his coronation would not harm the customary claim of the Archbishops of Esztergom to crown the kings. In 1211, Pope Innocent IIIdenied to confirm the agreement of Archbishop John of Esztergomand Archbishop Berthold of Kalocsaon the transfer of the claim, and he declared that it is only the Archbishop of Esztergom who is entitled to crown the King of Hungary.
List of the Kings of Hungary
*Saint Stephen I (1000/1001–1038)
*Peter I the Venetian (1038–1041, 1044–1046)
*Samuel I (1041–1044)
*Andrew I the White or the Catholic (1046/1047–1060)
*Solomon I (1057–1081)
*Béla I the Champion or the Bison (1060–1063)
*Géza I (1074–1077)
*Saint Ladislaus I (1077–1095)
*Coloman I the Book-lover (1095–1116)
*Stephen II (1105–1131)
*Béla II the Blind (1131–1141)
*Géza II (1141–1162)
*Stephen III (1162–1172)
*Ladislaus II (1162–1163)
*Stephen IV (1163–1165)
*Béla III (1172–1196)
*Emeric I (1196–1204)
*Ladislaus III (1204–1205)
*Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (1205–1235)
*Béla IV (1214–1270)
*Stephen V (1246–1272)
*Ladislaus IV the Cuman (1272–1290)
*Andrew III the Venetian (1290–1301)
*Wenceslaus I the Czech (1301–1305)
*Otto I the Bavarian/Béla V the Bavarian (1305–1307)
*Charles I Robert (1308–1342)
*Louis I the Great (1342–1382)
*Mary I (1382–1385, 1386−1395)
*Charles II the Short or of Durazzo (1385–1386)
*Sigismund I (1387–1437)
*Albert I (1437–1439)
*Ladislaus V the Posthumous (1440–1457)
*Wladislaus I of Varna (1440–1444)
*Matthias I the Just or Corvinus (1458–1490)
*Wladislaus II the "Dobže" (1490–1516)
*Louis II (1516–1526)
*John I (1526–1540)
*Ferdinand I (1526–1564)
*John II Sigismund (1540–1551, 1556−1570)
*Maximilian I (1563–1576)
*Rudolf I (1572–1608)
*Matthias II (1608–1619)
*Ferdinand II (1618–1637)
*Ferdinand III (1625–1657)
*Ferdinand IV (1647–1654)
*Leopold I (1657–1705)
*Joseph I (1687–1711)
*Charles III (1711–1740)
*Maria Theresa I (1740–1780)
*Joseph II the King with Hat (1780–1790)
*Leopold II (1790–1792)
*Francis I (1792–1835)
*Ferdinand V (1830–1848)
*Francis Joseph I (1848–1916)
*Blessed Charles IV (1916–1918)
* "Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század)", főszerkesztő: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)
* "Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I-III. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig; 1526-1848, 1848-1944", főszerkesztő: Benda, Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981, 1982, 1993)
* "Magyar Történelmi Fogalomtár I-II. – A-K; L-ZS", főszerkesztő: Bán, Péter (Gondolat, Budapest, 1989)
List of Hungarian rulers
High Prince of the Magyars
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