- History of animation
A basic summary of animation: past, present and future
Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a "still" drawing can be found in
Paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. ["The Art of Animation", Bob Thomas, 1958]
Iranianpottery of Shahr-i Sokhta, showing multiple images of a goat leaping up to a tree to take a pear. (Simulated animation.)] A 5,200-year old earthen bowl found in Iran in Shahr-i Sokhtahas five images painted along the sides. When the bowl is spun, it shows phases of a goat leaping up to a tree to take a pear. [ [http://www.animationmagazine.net/article/8045 Oldest Animation Discovered In Iran] . "Animation Magazine". 12-03-2008.] [ [http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=164429 CHTHO produces documentary on world’s oldest animation] . " Tehran Times". 04-03-2008.]
One of the earliest successful depictions of an image in motion is evident in the Greek era. Ex. A
Parthenonfrieze relief which depicts a series of horses that appear to gallop at increasing speeds as they progress. [http://www.ljplus.ru/img/t/u/tumelya/shum_A.gifAnother example] was found at the palace of Ashurbanipal II(884–859 BC) in Nineveh, excavated under the supervision of the Iraqi archeology professor Liahim Yalemut. Leonardo shoulder study(ca. 1510)
Seven drawings extending over two folios in the Windsor Collection, "Anatomical Studies of the Muscles of the Neck, Shoulder, Chest, and Arm," show detailed drawings of the upper body (with a less-detailed facial image), illustrating the changes as the torso turns from profile to frontal position and the forearm extends.
The magic lantern (1671)
magic lanternwas classed as the inventor of the modern day projector. It consisted of a translucent oil painting and a simple lamp. When put together in a darkened room, the image would appear larger on a flat surface. Athonasius Kircherspoke about this originating from China in the 1600s.
thaumatropewas a toy used in the Victorian era. It was a disk or card with two different pictures on each side that was attached to two pieces of string. When the strings were twirled quickly between the fingers the two pictures appear to combine into a single image. The creator of this invention may have been either John Ayrton Parisor Charles Babbage.
zoetropeis a device which creates the image of a moving picture. This contraption was produced in 1834 by William George Horner. The device is basically a cylinder with vertical slits around the sides. Around the inside edge of the cylinder there are a series of pictures on the opposite side to the slits. As the cylinder is spun, the user then looks through the slits producing the illusion of motion. No one thought this small device would be the initial beginnings for the animation world to come. As a matter a fact, in present day beginning animation classes, the Zoetrope is still being used to illustrate early concepts of animation.
praxinoscope, invented by French scientist Charles-Émile Reynaud, was a more sophisticated version of the zoetrope. It used the same basic mechanism of a strip of images placed on the inside of a spinning cylinder, but instead of viewing it through slits, it was viewed in a series of stationary mirrors around the inside of the cylinder, so that the animation would stay in place, and also provided a clearer image. Reynaud also developed a larger version of the praxinoscope that could be projected onto a screen, called the Théâtre Optique.
Flip book (1868)
flip bookwas patented in 1868 by a John Barns Linnet. This was another step closer to the development of animation. Like the Zoetrope, the Flip Book creates the illusion of motion. A set of sequential pictures seen at a high speed creates this effect. The Mutoscope(1894) is essentially a flip book in a box with a crank handle to flip the pages.
Stop motionis used for many animation productions using physical objects rather than images of people, as with traditional animation. An object will be photographed, moved slightly, and then photographed again. When the pictures are played back in normal speed the object will appear to move by itself.King Tut called this process is used for many productions, for example, clay animations such as " Chicken Run" and " Wallace and Gromit", as well as animated movies which use poseable figures, such as " The Nightmare Before Christmas" and " James and the Giant Peach". Sometimes even objects are used, such as with the films of Jan Švankmajer.
Stop motion animation was also commonly used for special effects work in many live-action films, such as the 1933 version of "King Kong" and "
The 7th Voyage of Sinbad".
Computer-generated imagery(CGI) changed animated films forever. The first fully computer generated feature film created was " Toy Story", produced by Pixar Animation Studios in 1995. "Toy Story" proved that companies were slowly making the transition from traditional animation to CGI animation. The process of CGI animation is still very tedious and similar in that sense to traditional animation, and it still adheres to many of the same principles.
A principal difference of CGI Animation compared to traditional animation is that drawing is replaced by 3D modeling, almost like virtual version of stop-motion, though a form of animation that combines the two worlds can be considered to be computer aided animation but on 2D computer drawing (which can be considered close to traditional drawing and sometimes based on it).
Most CGI created films are based on animal characters, monsters, machines or cartoon-like humans. Animation studios are now trying to develop ways of creating realistic-looking humans. Films that have attempted this include "" in 2001, The Polar Express in 2004, and "Beowulf" in 2007. However, due to the complexity of human body functions, emotions and interactions, this method of animation is rarely used. The more realistic a CG character becomes, the more difficult it is to create the nuances and details of a living person. The creation of hair and clothing that move convincingly with the animated human character is another area of difficulty.
The history of film animation began in the 1890s with the earliest days of silent films and continues through the present day. The first animated film was created by Charles-Émile Reynaud, inventor of the praxinoscope, an animation system using loops of 12 pictures. On
October 28, 1892at Musée Grévinin Paris, Francehe exhibited animations consisting of loops of about 500 frames, using his Théâtre Optiquesystem - similar in principle to a modern filmprojector.
The first animated work on standard picture film was "
Humorous Phases of Funny Faces" (1906) by J. Stuart Blackton. It features a cartoonist drawing faces on a chalkboard, and the faces apparently coming to life.
"Fantasmagorie", by the French director
Émile Cohl(also called "Émile Courtet"), is also noteworthy. It was screened for the first time on August 17, 1908at Théâtre du Gymnasein Paris. Émile Courtet later went to Fort Lee, New Jerseynear New York Cityin 1912, where he worked for French studio Éclairand spread its technique in the US.
The first animated feature film was "
El Apóstol", made in 1917 by Quirino Cristianifrom Argentina. He also directed two other animated feature films, including 1931's " Peludopolis", the first to use synchronized sound. None of these, however, survive to the present day. The earliest-surviving animated feature, which used colour-tinted scenes, is the silhouette-animated "Adventures of Prince Achmed" (1926) directed by German Lotte Reinigerand French/Hungarian Berthold Bartosch. Walt Disney's "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (1937), often considered to be the first animated feature when in fact at least eight were previously released, was the nevertheless first to use Technicolorand the first to become successful within the English-speaking world.
The first Japanese-made anime film was the propaganda film
Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors(桃太郎 海の神兵) by the Japanese director Mitsuyo Seo. The film, shown in 1945, was ordered to be made to support the war by the Japanese Naval Ministry. The film's song AIEUO no Uta (アイウエオの歌) was later used in Osamu Tezuka's anime series Kimba the White Lion. Originally thought to have been destroyed during the American occupation, a negative copy survived and the film is now available in Japanon VHS.
* Animation before film in 20th century.
History of British animation
The Dream Stone
Watership Down (Tv series)
Mr.Bean (the Animated Series) History of Czech animation
* Puppet animation,
Jiří Trnka, the Poetic animation school
* [http://www.kratkyfilm.com/catalogue/html/indexa.htm Catalogue of Czech animation]
* [http://www.animation.cz/ Czech animation homepage]
History of Estonian animation
*1931 - "The Adventures of Juku The Dog", first Estonian animated short film
*1950s - founding of puppet animation division of
Tallinnfilmby Elbert Tuganov
*1970s - founding of drawn animation division,
Joonisfilm, by Rein Raamat
* [http://www.vm.ee/estonia/kat_174/pea_174/405.html Article summarizing the history]
History of French animation
* 1908-1925, Work of
Émile Cohl:The first animated cartoon (1908), and most animation techniques: morphing(1909), puppet animationand color animated cartoon (1910), pixilation(1911), first animated series (" Le chien Flambeau", 1916). History of Italian animation
* The 1970 Italian animated cartoon art and industry (
La Linea (cartoon), Caliméro...)
* The 1977 animated Italian classic, "Allegro non troppo", is both a parody of and homage to Disney's "Fantasia". This is director Bruno Bozzetto's most ambitious work and his only feature-length animation, although he also directed several notable shorter works including "West and Soda", an animated
spaghetti western. [http://www.qnetwork.com/?page=review&id=1394] History of Russian animation
Ladislas Starevichcreates puppet animations
* 1935 First animated feature film in the
USSR, " The New Gulliver"
SoyuzmultfilmStudio is created, will go on to fund many thousands of short animated films, mostly for kids
* late 1930s to 1950s - enforced
Socialist Realismin cartoons (with a few exceptions).
* 1953 Puppet animation division re-founded at Soyuzmultfilm (it was closed shortly after "The New Gulliver" was released)
Fyodor Khitruk's short film "History of a Crime" introduces new aesthetic to Soviet animation
* 1969 First episode of popular series "
* 1972 First
Cheburashkashort is made
Yuriy Norshteynreleases "Tale of Tales", since then voted twice by a large panel of international critics as the best animated film ever made.
Studio Pilot, the first private animation studio in the USSR, is founded
* 1990s government subsidies shrink dramatically, while the number of studios grows. Soyuzmultfilm is beset by corruption and banditism, slowly loses its dominant place among Russian studios.
2000ssome high-profile animated features are made. Government diverts some funds to animation again. Nevertheless, many studios experience budget shortfalls and have difficulties finishing their ambitious projects. History of animation in Croatia (in former Yugoslavia)
Zagrebschool, cf. Zagreb Film
* The Čakovec school, cf. Škola Animiranog Filma Čakovec
North and South America
History of Argentinian animation
* World's first two feature-length animated films and first film with sound by
Quirino Cristiani[http://www.awn.com/mag/issue1.4/articles/bendazzi1.4.html] ; [http://www.quirinocristiani.com.ar/ Quirio Cristiani's page (Spanish)] History of Canadian animation
* Early Work
* Contributions of the
National Film Board of Canada's animation department
* Early commercial productions
** Contributions of Canadian voice actor recordings
* The 1980s- rise of the major indigenous industry
History of Cuban animation
¡Vampiros en la Habana!
Festival Internacional del Nuevo Cine Latinoamericano
History of United States animation
* Beginning of industrial production of animated cartoon.
Because the history of Hollywood animation as an art form has undergone many changes in its hundred-year history, Wikipedia presents four separate chapters in the development of its animation:
Animation in the United States during the silent era(1900s through 1920s)
:*The beginnings of theatrical, the earliest animated cartoons in the era of
silent film, ranging from the works of Winsor McCaythrough " Koko the Clown" and " Felix the Cat"
Bray Studioswas the first and foremost cartoon studio, housed in New York City. Many aspiring cartoonists started their careers at Bray, including Paul Terryof " Mighty Mouse" fame, Max Fleischerof " Betty Boop" fame, as well as Walter Lantzof " Woody Woodpecker" fame. The cartoon studio operated from circa 1915until 1928. Some of the first cartoon stars from the Bray studios were Farmer Alfalfa(by Paul Terry) and Bobby Bumps (by Earl Hurd).
Dave Fleischerformed their own studio Fleischer Studios, and created the "Koko the Clown", "Out of the Inkwell", and " Sound Car-Tunes" series.
The Golden Age of Hollywood animation(1930s and 1940s)
:*The dominance of
Walt Disneythroughout the 1930s, through revolutionary cartoons Silly Symphonies, Mickey Mouse, and Donald Duck. :*The rise of Warner Bros.and MGM:*The Fleischer Studios creation of Betty Boopand Popeyecartoons :*Disney's Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs marks the start of the "Golden Age" at Disney. :*The departure from realism, and UPA
Animation in the United States in the television era(1950s through 1980s)
:*The emergence of
TV animated seriesfrom Hanna-Barbera Productions:*The decline of theatrical cartoons and feature films:* Saturday morning cartoons:*The attempts at reviving animated features through the 1960s:*The rise of adult animationin the early 1970s:*The onslaught of commercial cartoons in the 1980s
Modern animation of the United States(1980s through present)
Who Framed Roger Rabbit" and the return of Disney:* Steven Spielberg's collaborations with Warner Bros.:*A flood of newer, bolder animation studios:* The Simpsonsmarks the resurgence of adult-oriented animation.:*The mainstream popularization of anime:*The rise of computer animation:*The decline of Saturday morning cartoons, the rise of Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network:* Cartoon Network's late-night animation block "Adult Swim" becomes immensely popular and leads to a resurgence in short, adult animation.
History of Iranian animation
The oldest records of animation in Persia (
Iran) dates back to 5000 years ago. An animated piece on an earthen goblet that belongs to 5000 years ago was found in Burnt City in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeastern Iran. On this ancient piece that can be called the first animation of the world, the artist has portrayed a goat that jumps toward a tree and eats its leaves.
The art of animation as practiced in modern day began in Iran in the 1950s. Iran's animation owes largely to the animator
Noureddin Zarrinkelk. Zarrinkelk was instrumental in founding the Institute for Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults ( IIDCYA) in Tehran in collaboration with the late father of Iranian graphics Morteza Momayezand other fellow artists like Farshid Mesghali, Ali Akbar Sadeghi, and Arapik Baghdasarian. [ [http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=5434§ionid=351020105 Press TV - Zarrinkelk, father of Iran animation ] ] History of Chinese animation
* 1922 first animation in a commercial
Shuzhendong Chinese Typewriter
* 1926 first animation to showcase technology
Uproar in the Studioand acknowledge Wan Laimingand Wan Guchanas pioneers.
* 1935 "
The Camel's Dancefirst chinese animationwith sound.
* 1941 "Princess Iron Fan"
*The first Japanese AnimationFound recently in Kyoto, the film depicts a boy wearing a sailor uniform performing a salute. The film dates back to around the year 1900 and is on 35mm Celluloid, composed of 50 frames put together with paste
* Pre-Tezuka experiments
Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki"(1917)
**"Saru Kani Gattsen"(1917)
**"Usagi to Kame" (1924)
**"Iburigusa Monogatari" (1924)
**"Entotuya pero" (1930)
Momotaro's Sea Eagles"(1942)
Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors"(1945)
* Mushi Productions and Toei Animation
Madame White Snake"(1958)
Osamu Tezuka's " Astro Boy" (1963), Kimba the White Lion(1965)
Isao Takahata's "" (1968), helped by Hayao Miyazakiand Yoichi Kotabe.
Obake no Q-taro"
Sally, the Witch"
Star of the Giants"
Attack No. 1"
Tomorrow's Joe" and the beginning of sportsand martial artsanime
**Rise of the
Mechaand Super Robotgenres and fall of Japanese film industry
**Impact of "
Gundam" and the beginning of the Real Robotgenre
Candy Candy" and " Lady Oscar" and the rise of shōjogenre
Science Ninja Team Gatchaman
Heidi, Girl of the Alps
Space Battleship Yamato
The Rose of Versailles
A Dog of Flanders
space operas with "Macross" (1982) and "Z Gundam" (1985)
fantasyadventures with the Hayao Miyazakifilms " Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind" and " Castle in the Sky"
**"Dragon Ball" and the rise of
**Ambitious productions such as "
Megazone 23" (1985) and "Akira" (1988) and the beginning of cyberpunkand postmodern anime
Fist of the North Star"
The Transformers (TV series)"
Kaze to Ki no Uta"
Grave of the Fireflies"
**Decline of domestic industry combined with international growth
**Rise of harem anime
Dragon Ball Z" and the rise of superhumanmartial arts anime
Sailor Moon" and the rise of magical girlanime
**The impact of "Neon Genesis Evangelion" series and the post-Evangelion trend
**Critical acclaim in the West and the rise of Moe series domesticallyNarutoKodocha
**Rise of digital
fansubs outside of Japan, particularly among anime fans in the West
**Revival of sports anime with titles such as "
Hajime no Ippo" and " Hikaru no Go"
psychological horrors and psychological thrillers with titles such as " Higurashi no Naku Koro ni" and " Death Note"
3D computer graphicsin anime, including anime titles by Hayao Miyazaki and Katsuhiro Otomo
cel-shadingin anime such as " Freedom Project"
Super Robotgenre and beginning of counter-Evangelion trend with " Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann"
Humorous Phases of Funny Facesby J. Stuart Blackton, regarded to be the first animated film]
* [http://www.animated-divots.com/chronst.html Chronology of animation]
* [http://www.animationeurope.com European animation films]
* [http://www.iupress.indiana.edu/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=40971 Estonian Animation]
* [http://www.QuirinoCristianiMovie.com/ Quirino Cristiani Documentary]
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