- Oracle Database
Oracle Database Developer(s) Oracle Corporation Development status Active Written in C, C++ Available in Multi-lingual Type ORDBMS License Proprietary Website www.oracle.com
Larry Ellison and his friends and former co-workers Bob Miner and Ed Oates started the consultancy Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in 1977. SDL developed the original version of the Oracle software. The name Oracle comes from the code-name of a CIA-funded project Ellison had worked on while previously employed by Ampex.
Physical and logical structures
An Oracle database system—identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID—comprises at least one instance of the application, along with data storage. An instance—identified persistently by an instantiation number (or activation id: SYS.V_$DATABASE.ACTIVATION#)—comprises a set of operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact with the storage. Typical processes include PMON (the process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor).
Users of the Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information such as data-buffers, SQL commands, and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (or logs), which hold transactional history. Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis (if necessary) for data recovery and for some forms of data replication.
If the Oracle database administrator has implemented Oracle RAC (Real Application Clusters), then multiple instances, usually on different servers, attach to a central storage array. This scenario offers advantages such as better performance, scalability and redundancy. However, support becomes more complex, and many sites do not use RAC. In version 10g, grid computing introduced shared resources where an instance can use (for example) CPU resources from another node (computer) in the grid.
The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation's proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.
The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files ("datafiles"). Tablespaces can contain various types of memory segments, such as Data Segments, Index Segments, etc. Segments in turn comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks form the basic units of data storage.
There is also a partitioning feature available on newer versions of the database, which allows tables to be partitioned based on different set of keys. Specific partitions can then be easily added or dropped to help manage large data sets.
Oracle database management tracks its computer data storage with the help of information stored in the
SYSTEMtablespace contains the data dictionary—and often (by default) indexes and clusters. A data dictionary consists of a special collection of tables that contains information about all user-objects in the database. Since version 8i, the Oracle RDBMS also supports "locally managed" tablespaces which can store space management information in bitmaps in their own headers rather than in the
SYSTEMtablespace (as happens with the default "dictionary-managed" tablespaces). Version 10g and later introduced the
SYSAUXtablespace which contains some of the tables formerly in the
Disk files primarily consist of the following types:
- Data and index files: Those files are necessary for the physical storage, which can consist of the data dictionary data (associated to the tablespace SYSTEM), user data, or index data. These files can be managed manually or managed by Oracle itself ("Oracle-managed files"). Note that a datafile has to belong to exactly one tablespace, whereas a tablespace can consist of multiple datafiles.
- Redo log files consisting of all changes to the database, used to recover from an instance failure. Note that often these files are stored multiple times, for extra security in case of disk failure. The identical redo log files are said to belong to the same group.
- Undo files: Those special datafiles, which can only contain undo information, are used for recovery, rollbacks, and read consistency.
- Archive log files: Those files are copies of the redo log files, but are usually stored at different locations. They are necessary for example to be applied to a standby database, or to perform recovery after an instance failure. It is possible to archive to multiple locations.
- Tempfiles: Those special datafiles are used exclusively for temporary storage data (used for example for large sorts)
- Control file, necessary for database startup. "A binary file that records the physical structure of a database and contains the names and locations of redo log files, the time stamp of the database creation, the current log sequence number, checkpoint information, and so on." 
The following parameters govern the size of the control files:
* maxlogfile * maxlogmembers * maxloghistory * maxinstances * control_file_record_keep_time
Oracle database conventions refer to defined groups of object ownership (generally associated with a "username") as schemas.
Most Oracle database installations traditionally came with a default schema called
SCOTT. After the installation process has set up the sample tables, the user can log into the database with the username
scottand the password
tiger. The name of the
SCOTTschema originated with Bruce Scott, one of the first employees at Oracle (then Software Development Laboratories), who had a cat named Tiger.
Oracle Corporation has de-emphasized the use of the
SCOTTschema, as it uses few of the features of the more recent releases of Oracle. Most recent[update] examples supplied by Oracle Corporation reference the default HR or OE schemas.
SYS(essential core database structures and utilities)
SYSTEM(additional core database structures and utilities, and privileged account)
OUTLN(utilized to store metadata for stored outlines for stable query-optimizer execution plans.
SH(expanded sample schemas containing more data and structures than the older
System Global Area
Each Oracle instance allocates itself an SGA when it starts and de-allocates it at shut-down time. The information in the SGA consists of the following elements, each of which has a fixed size, established at instance startup:
- the redo log buffer: this stores redo entries—a log of changes made to the database. The instance writes redo log buffers to the redo log as quickly and efficiently as possible. The redo log aids in instance recovery in the event of a system failure.
- the shared pool: this area of the SGA stores shared-memory structures such as shared SQL areas in the library cache and internal information in the data dictionary. An insufficient amount of memory allocated to the shared pool can cause performance degradation.
The library cache stores shared SQL, caching the parse tree and the execution plan for every unique SQL statement. If multiple applications issue the same SQL statement, each application can access the shared SQL area. This reduces the amount of memory needed and reduces the processing-time used for parsing and execution planning.
Data dictionary cache
Oracle databases store information here about the logical and physical structure of the database. The data dictionary contains information such as:
- user information, such as user privileges
- integrity constraints defined for tables in the database
- names and datatypes of all columns in database tables
- information on space allocated and used for schema objects
The Oracle instance frequently accesses the data dictionary in order to parse SQL statements. The operation of Oracle depends on ready access to the data dictionary: performance bottlenecks in the data dictionary affect all Oracle users. Because of this, database administrators should make sure that the data dictionary cache has sufficient capacity to cache this data. Without enough memory for the data-dictionary cache, users see a severe performance degradation. Allocating sufficient memory to the shared pool where the data dictionary cache resides precludes these particular performance problem.
Program Global Area
The size and content of the PGA depends on the Oracle-server options installed. This area consists of the following components:
- stack-space: the memory that holds the session's variables, arrays, and so on.
- session-information: unless using the multithreaded server, the instance stores its session-information in the PGA. (In a multithreaded server, the session-information goes in the SGA.)
- private SQL-area: an area which holds information such as bind-variables and runtime-buffers.
- sorting area: an area in the PGA which holds information on sorts, hash-joins, etc.
Dynamic performance views
The dynamic performance views (also known as "fixed views") within an Oracle database present information from virtual tables (X$ tables) built on the basis of database memory. Database users can access the V$ views (named after the prefix of their synonyms) to obtain information on database structures and performance.
The Oracle RDBMS typically relies on a group of processes running simultaneously in the background and interacting to monitor and expedite database operations. Typical operating environments might include some of the following individual processes (shown along with their abbreviated nomenclature):
- advanced queueing processes (Qnnn)
- archiver processes (ARCn)
- checkpoint process (CKPT) *REQUIRED*
- coordinator-of-job-queues process (CJQn): dynamically spawns slave processes for job-queues
- database writer processes (DBWn) *REQUIRED*
- dispatcher processes (Dnnn): multiplex server-processes on behalf of users
- job-queue slave processes (Jnnn)
- log-writer process (LGWR) *REQUIRED*
- log-write network-server (LNSn): transmits redo logs in Data Guard environments
- logical standby coordinator process (LSP0): controls Data Guard log-application
- media-recovery process (MRP): detached recovery-server process
- memory-manager process (MMAN): used for internal database tasks such as Automatic Shared Memory Management
- memory-monitor process (MMON): process for automatic problem-detection, self-tuning and statistics-gathering
- memory-monitor light process (MMNL): gathers and stores Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) data
- mmon slaves (Mnnnn—M0000, M0001, etc.): background slaves of the MMON process
- process-monitor process (PMON) *REQUIRED*
- process-spawner (PSP0): spawns Oracle processes
- queue-monitor coordinator process (QMNC): dynamically spwans queue monitor slaves
- queue-monitor processes (QMNn)
- recoverer process (RECO)
- remote file-server process (RFS)
- shared server processes (Snnn): serve client-requests
- system monitor process (SMON) *REQUIRED*
User processes, connections and sessions
Oracle Database terminology distinguishes different computer-science terms in describing how end-users interact with the database:
- user processes involve the invocation of application software
- a connection refers to the pathway linking a user process to an Oracle instance
- sessions consist of specific connections to an Oracle instance. Each session within an instance has a session identifier or "SID" (distinct from the system-identifier SID).
Concurrency and locking
Oracle databases control simultaneous access to data resources with locks (alternatively documented as "enqueues" ). The databases also utilize "latches" -- low-level serialization mechanisms to protect shared data structures in the System Global Area.
Database administrators control many of the tunable variations in an Oracle instance by means of values in a parameter file. This file in its ASCII default form ("pfile") normally has a name of the format
init<SID-name>.ora. The default binary equivalent server paramater file ("spfile") (dynamically reconfigurable to some extent) defaults to the format
spfile<SID-name>.ora. Within an SQL-based environment, the views
V$SPPARAMETER give access to reading parameter values.
Oracle Database software comes in 63 language-versions (including regional variations such as British English and American English). Variations between versions cover the names of days and months, abbreviations, time-symbols such as A.M. and A.D., and sorting.
Oracle Corporation has translated Oracle Database error-messages into Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Thai and Turkish.
- 1977: Larry Ellison and friends founded Software Development Laboratories.
- 1979: SDL changed its company-name to "Relational Software, Inc." (RSI) and introduced its product Oracle V2 as an early commercially available relational database system. The version did not support transactions, but implemented the basic SQL functionality of queries and joins. (RSI never released a version 1 - instead calling the first version version 2 as a marketing gimmick.)
- 1982: RSI in its turn changed its name, becoming known as "Oracle Corporation", to align itself more closely with its flagship product.
- 1983: The company released Oracle version 3, which it had re-written using the C programming language and which supported
ROLLBACKfunctionality for transactions. Version 3 extended platform support from the existing Digital VAX/VMS systems to include Unix environments.
- 1984: Oracle Corporation released Oracle version 4, which supported read-consistency.
- 1985: Oracle Corporation released Oracle version 5, which supported the client–server model—a sign of networks becoming more widely available in the mid-1980s.
- 1986: Oracle version 5.1 started supporting distributed queries.
- 1988: Oracle RDBMS version 6 came out with support for PL/SQL embedded within Oracle Forms v3 (version 6 could not store PL/SQL in the database proper), row-level locking and hot backups.
- 1989: Oracle Corporation entered the application products market and developed its ERP product, (later to become part of the Oracle E-Business Suite), based on the Oracle relational database.
- 1990: the release of Oracle Applications release 8
- 1992: Oracle version 7 appeared with support for referential integrity, stored procedures and triggers.
- 1997: Oracle Corporation released version 8, which supported object-oriented development and multimedia applications.
- 1999: The release of Oracle8i aimed to provide a database inter-operating better with the Internet (the i in the name stands for "Internet"). The Oracle8i database incorporated a native Java virtual machine (Oracle JVM, also known as "Aurora".).
- 2000: Oracle E-Business Suite 11i pioneers integrated enterprise application software
- 2001: Oracle9i went into release with 400 new features, including the ability to read and write XML documents. 9i also provided an option for Oracle RAC, or "Real Application Clusters", a computer-cluster database, as a replacement for the Oracle Parallel Server (OPS) option.
- 2003: Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 10g, which supported regular expressions. (The g stands for "grid"; emphasizing a marketing thrust of presenting 10g as "grid computing ready".)
- 2005: Oracle Database 10.2.0.1—also known as Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10gR2)—appeared.
- 2006: Oracle Corporation announces Unbreakable Linux
- 2007: Oracle Database 10g release 2 sets a new world record TPC-H 3000 GB benchmark result
- 2007: Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g for Linux and for Microsoft Windows.
- 2008: Oracle Corporation acquires BEA Systems.
- 2010: Oracle Corporation acquires Sun Microsystems.
Critical Patch Updates (CPUs) and Security Alerts
Oracle Critical Patch Updates (CPUs) and Security Alerts are released quarterly on the Tuesday closest to 17th day of the month. The general goal of the patches is to close security holes through which data theft may occurred.
- You may receive release notification by email.
- White Paper: Critical Patch Update Implementation Best Practices
Oracle products follow a custom release numbering and naming convention. With the Oracle RDBMS 10g release, Oracle Corporation began using the "10g" label in all versions of its major products, although some sources refer to Oracle Applications Release 11i as Oracle 11i.[clarification needed] The suffixes "i" and "g" do not actually represent a low-order part of the version number, as letters typically represent in software industry version numbering; that is, there is no predecessor version of Oracle 10g called Oracle 10f. Instead, the letters stand for "internet" and "grid", respectively. Consequently many simply drop the "g" or "i" suffix when referring to specific versions of an Oracle product.
Major database-related products and some of their versions include:
- Oracle Application Server 10g (also known as "Oracle AS 10g"): a middleware product;
- Oracle Applications Release 11i (aka Oracle e-Business Suite, Oracle Financials or Oracle 11i): a suite of business applications;
- Oracle Developer Suite 10g (9.0.4);
- Oracle JDeveloper 10g: a Java integrated development environment;
Since version 5, Oracle's RDBMS release numbering has used the following codes:
- Oracle v5
- Oracle v6
- Oracle7: 7.0.16–7.3.4
- Oracle8 Database: 8.0.3–8.0.6
- Oracle8i Database Release 1: 22.214.171.124–126.96.36.199
- Oracle8i Database Release 2: 188.8.131.52–184.108.40.206
- Oracle8i Database Release 3: 220.127.116.11–18.104.22.168
- Oracle9i Database Release 1: 22.214.171.124–126.96.36.199 (patchset as of December 2003[update])
- Oracle9i Database Release 2: 188.8.131.52–184.108.40.206 (patchset as of April 2007[update])
- Oracle Database 10g Release 1: 10.1.0.2–10.1.0.5 (patchset as of February 2006[update])
- Oracle Database 10g Release 2: 10.2.0.1–10.2.0.5 (patchset as of April 2010[update])
- Oracle Database 11g Release 1: 220.127.116.11–18.104.22.168 (patchset as of September 2008[update])
- Oracle Database 11g Release 2: 22.214.171.124–126.96.36.199 (patchset as of September 2011[update])
The version-numbering syntax within each release follows the pattern: major.maintenance.application-server.component-specific.platform-specific.
For example, "10.2.0.1 for 64-bit Solaris" means: 10th major version of Oracle, maintenance level 2, Oracle Application Server (OracleAS) 0, level 1 for Solaris 64-bit.
The Oracle Administrator's Guide offers further information on Oracle release numbers.
Over and above the different versions of the Oracle database management software developed over time, Oracle Corporation subdivides its product into varying "editions" - apparently for marketing and license-tracking reasons. (Do not confuse the marketing "editions" with the internal virtual versioning "editions" introduced with Oracle 11.2). In approximate order of decreasing scale, we find:
- Enterprise Edition (EE) includes more features than the 'Standard Edition', especially in the areas of performance and security. Oracle Corporation licenses this product on the basis of users or of processors, typically for servers running 4 or more CPUs. EE has no memory limits, and can utilize clustering using Oracle RAC software.
- Standard Edition (SE) contains base database functionality. Oracle Corporation licenses this product on the basis of users or of processors, typically for servers running from one to four CPUs. If the number of CPUs exceeds 4 CPUs, the user must convert to an Enterprise license. SE has no memory limits, and can utilize clustering with Oracle RAC at no additional charge.
- Standard Edition One, (SE1 or SEO) introduced with Oracle 10g, has some additional feature-restrictions. Oracle Corporation markets it for use on systems with one or two CPUs. It has no memory limitations.
- Express Edition ("Oracle Database XE"), introduced in 2005, offers Oracle 10g free to distribute on Windows and Linux platforms. It has a footprint of only 150 MB and is restricted to the use of a single CPU, a maximum of 4 GB of user data. Although it can install on a server with any amount of memory, it uses a maximum of 1 GB. Support for this version comes exclusively through on-line forums and not through Oracle support.
- Oracle Database Lite, intended for running on mobile devices. The embedded mobile database located on the mobile device can synchronize with a server-based installation.
Prior to releasing Oracle 9i in 2001, Oracle Corporation ported its database product to a wide variety of platforms. More recently Oracle Corporation has consolidated on a smaller range of operating-system platforms.
- Microsoft Windows (32-bit)
- Microsoft Windows (x64)
- Linux x86
- Linux x86-64
- Solaris (SPARC) (64-bit)
- Solaris (x86-64)
- HP-UX Itanium
- HP-UX PA-RISC (64-bit)
- AIX (PPC64)
- Oracle Database Firewall analyzes database traffic on a network to prevent threats such as SQL injection.
- Active Data Guard (extends Oracle Data Guard physical standby functionality in 11g)
- Advanced Compression (compresses tables, backups and redo-data)
- Advanced Security (adds data encryption methods)
- Content database (provides a centralized repository for unstructured information)
- Database Vault (enforces extra security on data access)
- Data Mining ( ODM) (mines for patterns in existing data)
- In-Memory Database Cache (utilizes TimesTen technology)
- Label Security (enforces row-level security)
- Management Packs (various). For example:
- Oracle Answers (for ad-hoc analysis and reporting)
- Oracle OLAP (adds analytical processing)
- Oracle Programmer (provides programmatic access to Oracle databases via precompilers, interfaces and bindings)
- Partitioning (granularizes tables and indexes for efficiency)
- Real Application Clusters (RAC) (coordinates multiple database servers, together accessing the same database)
- Oracle Real Application Testing (new at version 11g)—including Database Replay (for testing workloads) and SQL Performance Analyzer (SPA) (for preserving SQL efficiency in changing environments)
- Records database (a records management application)
- Oracle Spatial (integrates relational data with geographic information systems (GIS))
- Transparent Gateway for connecting to non-Oracle systems. Offers optimized solution, with more functionality and better performance than Oracle Generic Connectivity.
- Total Recall (optimizes long-term storage of historical data)
- Oracle Warehouse Builder (in various forms and sub-options)
- Oracle GoldenGate 11g (distributed real-time data acquisition)
In most cases, using these options entails extra licensing costs.
In addition to its RDBMS, Oracle Corporation has released several related suites of tools and applications relating to implementations of Oracle databases. For example:
- Oracle Application Server, a J2EE-based application server, aids in developing and deploying applications which utilise Internet technologies and a browser.
- Oracle Collaboration Suite contains messaging, groupware and collaboration applications.
- Oracle Developer Suite contains software development tools, including JDeveloper.
- Oracle E-Business Suite collects together applications for enterprise resource planning (including Oracle Financials), customer relationship management and human resources management (Oracle HR).
- Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) used by database administrators (DBAs) to manage the DBMS, and recently[update] in version 10g, a web-based rewrite of OEM called "Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control". Oracle Corporation has dubbed the super-Enterprise-Manager used to manage a grid of multiple DBMS and Application Servers "Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control".
- Oracle Programmer/2000, a bundling of interfaces for 3GL programming languages, marketed with Oracle7 and Oracle8.
- Oracle WebCenter Suite
Apart from the clearly defined database options, Oracle databases may include many semi-autonomous software sub-systems, which Oracle Corporation sometimes refers to as "features" in a sense subtly different from the normal usage of the word. For example, Oracle Data Guard counts officially as a "feature", but the command-stack within SQL*Plus, though a usability feature, does not appear in the list of "features" in Oracle's list.[original research?] Such "features" may include (for example):
- Active Session History (ASH), the collection of data for immediate monitoring of very recent database activity.
- Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), providing monitoring services to Oracle database installations from Oracle version 10. Prior to the release of Oracle version 10, the Statspack facility provided similar functionality.
- Data Aggregation and Consolidation
- Data Guard for high availability
- Generic Connectivity for connecting to non-Oracle systems.
- Data Pump utilities, which aid in importing and exporting data and metadata between databases
- Database Resource Manager (DRM), which controls the use of computing resources.
- Fast-start parallel rollback
- Fine-grained auditing (FGA) (in Oracle Enterprise Edition) supplements standard security-auditing features
- Flashback for selective data recovery and reconstruction
- iSQL*Plus, a web-browser-based graphical user interface (GUI) for Oracle database data-manipulation (compare SQL*Plus)
- Oracle Data Access Components (ODAC), tools which consist of:
- Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET)
- Oracle Developer Tools (ODT) for Visual Studio
- Oracle Providers for ASP.NET
- Oracle Database Extensions for .NET
- Oracle Provider for OLE DB
- Oracle Objects for OLE
- Oracle Services for Microsoft Transaction Server
- Oracle-managed files (OMF) -- a feature allowing automated naming, creation and deletion of datafiles at the operating-system level.
- Recovery Manager (rman) for database backup, restoration and recovery
- SQL*Plus, a program that allows users to interact with Oracle database(s) via SQL and PL/SQL commands on a command-line. Compare iSQL*Plus.
- Universal Connection Pool (UCP), a connection pool based on Java and supporting JDBC, LDAP, and JCA
- Virtual Private Database (VPD), an implementation of fine-grained access control.
Users can develop applications in Java and PL/SQL using tools such as Oracle JDeveloper, Oracle Forms, or Oracle Reports. Oracle Corporation has started[clarification needed] a drive toward 'wizard'-driven environments with a view to enabling non-programmers to produce simple data-driven applications.
Oracle SQL Developer, a free graphical tool for database development, allows developers to browse database objects, run SQL statements and SQL scripts, and edit and debug PL/SQL statements. It incorporates standard and customized reporting.
Other databases marketed by Oracle Corporation
By acquiring other technology in the database field, Oracle Corporation has taken over:
- TimesTen, a memory-resident database that can cache transactions and synchronize data with a centralized Oracle database server. It functions as a real-time infrastructure software product intended for the management of low-latency, high-volume data, of events and of transactions.
- BerkeleyDB, a simple, high-performance, embedded database
- Oracle Rdb, a legacy relational database for the OpenVMS operating system
- MySQL a relational database purchased as part of its immediate previous owner, Sun Microsystems
The Oracle RDBMS has had a reputation among novice users as difficult to install on Linux systems. Oracle Corporation has packaged recent[update] versions for several popular Linux distributions in an attempt to minimize installation challenges beyond the level of technical expertise required to install a database server.
Users who have Oracle support contracts can use Oracle's "My Oracle Support" web site. The "My Oracle Support" site was known as MetaLink until a re-branding exercise completed in October 2010. The support site provides users of Oracle Corporation products with a repository of reported problems, diagnostic scripts and solutions. It also integrates with the provision of support tools, patches and upgrades.
The Remote Diagnostic Agent or RDA can operate as a command-line diagnostic tool executing a script. The data captured provides an overview of the Oracle Database environment intended for diagnostic and trouble-shooting. Within RDA, the HCVE (Health Check Validation Engine) can verify and isolate host system environmental issues that may affect the performance of Oracle software.
Oracle Corporation also endorses certain practices and conventions as enhancing the use of its database products. These include:
- Oracle Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA), guidelines on developing high-availability systems
- Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA), blueprints for mapping Oracle-database objects to file-systems
Oracle Certification Program
- Oracle Certified Associate (OCA)
- Oracle Certified Professional (OCP)
- Oracle Certified Master (OCM)
A variety of official (Oracle-sponsored) and unofficial Oracle User Groups has grown up of users and developers of Oracle databases. They include:
- Oracle Technology Network
- Independent Oracle Users Group
- Geographical/regional user groups
- Product-centric user groups
- Industry-centric user groups
- The Oak Table Network
- Usenet newsgroups
In the market for relational databases, Oracle Database competes against commercial products such as IBM's DB2 UDB and Microsoft SQL Server. Oracle and IBM tend to battle for the mid-range database market on UNIX and Linux platforms, while Microsoft dominates the mid-range database market on Microsoft Windows platforms. However, since they share many of the same customers, Oracle and IBM tend to support each other's products in many middleware and application categories (for example: WebSphere, PeopleSoft, and Siebel Systems CRM), and IBM's hardware divisions work closely with Oracle on performance-optimizing server-technologies (for example, Linux on zSeries). The two companies have a relationship perhaps[original research?] best described as "coopetition". Niche commercial competitors include Teradata (in data warehousing and business intelligence), Software AG's ADABAS, Sybase, and IBM's Informix, among many others.
Increasingly, the Oracle database products compete against such open-source software relational database systems as PostgreSQL, Firebird, and MySQL. Oracle acquired Innobase, supplier of the InnoDB codebase to MySQL, in part to compete better against open source alternatives, and acquired Sun Microsystems, owner of MySQL, in 2010. Database products licensed as open source are, by the legal terms of the Open Source Definition, free to distribute and free of royalty or other licensing fees.
Oracle Corporation offers term licensing for all Oracle products. It bases the list price for a term-license on a specific percentage of the perpetual license price. Prospective purchasers can obtain licenses based either on the number of processors in their target server machines or on the number of potential seats ("named users").
- Enterprise Edition
- As of July 2010[update], the database that costs the most per machine-processor among Oracle database editions, at $47,500 per processor. The term "per processor" for Enterprise Edition is defined with respect to physical cores and a processor core multiplier (common processors = 0.5*cores). e.g. An 8-processor, 32-core server using Intel Xeon 56XX CPUs would require 16 processor licenses.
- Standard Edition
- Cheaper: it can run on up to four processors but has fewer features than Enterprise Edition—it lacks proper parallelization, etc.; but remains quite suitable for running medium-sized applications.
- Standard ONE
- Sells even more cheaply, but remains limited to two CPUs. Standard Edition ONE sells on a per-seat basis with a five-user minimum. Oracle Corporation usually sells the licenses with an extra 22% cost for support and upgrades (access to MetaLink—Oracle Corporation's support site) which customers need to renew annually.
- Oracle Express Edition (Oracle XE)
- An addition to the Oracle database product family (beta version released in 2005, production version released in February 2006), offers a free version of the Oracle RDBMS, but one limited to 11 GB of user data and to 1 GB of memory used by the database (SGA+PGA). XE will use no more than one CPU and lacks an internal JVM. XE runs only on Windows and on Linux, not on AIX, Solaris, HP-UX and the other operating systems available for other editions. Support is via a free Oracle Discussion Forum only.
As computers running Oracle often have eight or more processors, the software price can rise into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. The total cost of ownership often exceeds this, as large Oracle installations usually require experienced and trained database administrators to do the set-up properly. Because of the product's large installed base and available training courses, Oracle specialists in some areas have become a more abundant resource than those for more exotic databases. Oracle frequently provides special training offers for database-administrators.
On Linux, Oracle's certified configurations include Oracle's own Oracle Linux and other commercial Linux distributions (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, 4 and 5, SuSE SLES 8, 9 and 10, Asianux) which can cost in a range from a few hundred to a few thousand USD per year (depending on processor architecture and the support package purchased).
- Comparison of relational database management systems
- Comparison of object-relational database management systems
- Database management system
- List of ERP software packages
- List of relational database management systems
- Oracle Rdb for OpenVMS
- Run Book Automation
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- ^ Oracle FAQ
- ^ "Known schemas in Oracle". Adp-gmbh.ch. http://www.adp-gmbh.ch/ora/misc/known_schemas.html. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ "11g Default Schema". ABCdba.com. http://abcdba.com/abcdbaserver11gdefaultschema. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
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- ^ "Oracle architecture, the library cache section". http://www.world-class-programme.com/Oracle-Architecture-2.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ "Oracle Architecture, data dictionary cache". World-class-programme.com. http://www.world-class-programme.com/Oracle-Architecture-2.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ "Oracle architecture, Program Global Area section". World-class-programme.com. http://www.world-class-programme.com/Oracle-Architecture-2.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ PGA Definition, Oracle Database Master Glossary
- ^ Bell, Mike (2002). "V$ views - don't leave $HOME without them" (PDF). New York Oracle users Group. pp. 59. http://nyoug.org/Presentations/2002/vviews.PDF. Retrieved 2010-03-09. "X$ tables are fixed tables created in memory at database startup [...] V$ views are created on one or more X$ tables"
- ^ Tony, Morales; et al. (October 2009). "Overview of the Dynamic Performance Views" (PDF). Oracle Database Reference 11g Release 2 (11.2). Oracle Corporation. p. 8-1. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e10820.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-09. "V$INDEXED_FIXED_COLUMN displays the columns in dynamic performance tables that are indexed (X$ tables)." [dead link]
- ^ "Oracle Process architecture concepts". Download.oracle.com. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28318/process.htm#i16977. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ Antognini, Christian (2008). Troubleshooting Oracle Performance. Apress Series. Apress. p. 71. ISBN 9781590599174. http://books.google.com/books?id=b3DIkYO2gBQC. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
- ^ Debes, Norbert (2009). Secrets of the Oracle Database. Apress series. Apress. p. 173. ISBN 9781430219521. http://books.google.com/books?id=g1R96D2uO7kC. Retrieved 2011-05-02. "The job queue is handled by the job queue coordinator process CJQ0 and job queue slave processes (JNNN)."
- ^ Safaribooksonline.com Niemiec, Richard (25 June 2007) "1.30. New Background Processes in 10g" Oracle Database 10g Performance Tuning: Tips & Techniques Oracle Press p. 967 ISBN 978-0-0722-6305-3 http://my.safaribooksonline.com/9780072263053/new_background_processes_in_10. Retrieved 2009-08-12 "MMON Memory Monitor process is associated with the Automatic Workload Repository new features used for automatic problem detection and self-tuning. MMON writes out the required statistics for AWR on a scheduled basis."
- ^ Safaribooksonline.comNiemiec, Richard (25 June 2007) "1.30. New Background Processes in 10g" Oracle Database 10g Performance Tuning: Tips & Techniques Oracle Press p. 967 ISBN 978-0-0722-6305-3 http://my.safaribooksonline.com/9780072263053/new_background_processes_in_10. Retrieved 2009-08-12 "M000 These are MMON background slave (m000) processes."
- ^ Dyke, Julian; Steve Shaw (2006). Pro Oracle database 10g RAC on Linux: installation, administration, and performance. Apress Series. Apress. p. 45. ISBN 9781590595244. http://books.google.com/books?id=GjYTbJTIr54C. Retrieved 2011-05-05. "In Oracle 10.1, a queue monitor coordinator (QMNC) process [...] dynamically spawns queue monitor slaves (q000 to q009)."
- ^ Cyran, Michele; Paul Lane (2005). "Process Architecture". Oracle Database Concepts. Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B19306_01/server.102/b14220/process.htm#sthref1481. Retrieved 2008-08-13. "When a user runs an application program (such as a Pro*C program) or an Oracle tool (such as Enterprise Manager or SQL*Plus), Oracle creates a user process to run the user's application."
- ^ Cyran, Michele; Paul Lane (2005). "Process Architecture". Oracle Database Concepts. Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B19306_01/server.102/b14220/process.htm#sthref1481. Retrieved 2008-08-13. "A connection is a communication pathway between a user process and an Oracle instance."
- ^ Cyran, Michele; Paul Lane (2005). "Process Architecture". Oracle Database Concepts. Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B19306_01/server.102/b14220/process.htm#sthref1481. Retrieved 2008-08-13. "A session is a specific connection of a user to an Oracle instance through a user process"
- ^ Morales, Tony (2008). "V$SESSION". Oracle Database Reference 11g Release 1 (11.1). Oracle. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28320/dynviews_3016.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- ^ Chan, Immanuel (July 2008). "Glossary". Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28274/glossary.htm?type=popup#sthref1649. Retrieved 2009-04-29. "enqueue[:] This is another term for a lock."
- ^ "Oracle Database Master Glossary: 11g Release 1 (11.1)". Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/mix.111/b14388/gloss-l.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-24. "latch[:] A simple, low-level serialization mechanism to protect shared data structures in the System Global Area."
- ^ Strohm, Richard; et al. (October 2008). "Parameter Files". Oracle Database Concepts 11g Release 1 (11.1). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28318/intro.htm#sthref23. Retrieved 2009-07-14. "Parameter files contain a list of configuration parameters for that instance and database."
- ^ Strohm, Richard; et al. (October 2008). "Initialization Parameter Files and Server Parameter Files". Oracle Database Concepts 11g Release 1 (11.1). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28318/startup.htm#i9633. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
- ^ Morales, Tony; et al. (April 2009). "V$PARAMETER". Oracle Database Reference 11g Release 1 (11.1). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28320/dynviews_2.htm#insertedID85. Retrieved 2009-07-14. "V$PARAMETER displays information about the initialization parameters that are currently in effect for the session."
- ^ Morales, Tony; et al. (April 2009). "V$SPPARAMETER". Oracle Database Reference 11g Release 1 (11.1). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28320/dynviews_3.htm#insertedID41. Retrieved 2009-07-14. "V$SPPARAMETER displays information about the contents of the server parameter file."
- ^ "Locale Languages". http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B19306_01/server.102/b14225/applocaledata.htm#i634428. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- ^ "Error Message Languages". http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B19306_01/server.102/b14225/applocaledata.htm#i634673. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- ^ Arju, Md. Abdul; et al. (November 2010). "A complete RMAN shell script backup for Oracle 8i, 9i, 10g, 11g". A complete RMAN shell script backup for Oracle 8i, 9i, 10g, 11g. Md.Abdul Arju. http://arjudba.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-11-07. "A complete RMAN backup shell script that will work regardless of most used oracle version as well as most used unix operating system. In this script it is assumed that you are using recovery catalog for you rman backup."
- ^ Shea, Cathy; et al. (September 2007). "Overview of Globalization Support". Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28298/ch1overview.htm#sthref8. Retrieved 2009-02-16. "In the past, Oracle referred to globalization support capabilities as National Language Support (NLS) features. NLS is actually a subset of globalization support. NLS is the ability to choose a national language and store data in a specific character set. Globalization support enables you to develop multilingual applications and software products that can be accessed and run from anywhere in the world simultaneously."
- ^ As Larry Ellison said in an Oracle OpenWorld keynote presentation on 11 November 2007: "Who'd buy a version 1.0 from four guys in California?"
- ^ a b c d e Oracle.com
- ^ Compare Oracle.com
- ^ Harrison, Guy (2001). Oracle SQL high-performance tuning. Prentice Hall PTR Oracle series (2 ed.). Prentice Hall PTR. p. 590. ISBN 9780130123817. http://books.google.com/books?id=bh6CLbeKQ4QC. Retrieved 2011-01-20. "Aurora[:] The name of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) incorporated into Oracle8i."
- ^ "Oracle Database 10g Sets New Record for TPC-H Three TB Benchmark". http://www.itmanagement.com/press-releases/oracle-tpc-h-record-060806/. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ Llewellyn, Bryn (July 2009). "Edition-Based Redefinition" (PDF). Redwood Shores, California: Oracle Corporation. p. 6. http://www.oracle.com/technology/deploy/availability/pdf/edition_based_redefinition.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-09. "An edition is a [...] nonschema object type, uniquely identified [...] by just its name."
- ^ Enterprise Edition
- ^ Standard Edition
- ^ Standard Edition One
- ^ Teodora, Vatuiu (2008-12-27). "Technologies solutions and Oracle instruments used in the accomplishment of executive informatics systems (EIS)" (PDF). MPRA: Munich Personal RePEc Archive. p. 1555. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/12391/1/MPRA_paper_12391.pdf. Retrieved 2011-05-09. "Oracle Database 10g Standard Edition One (SE1) is intended for business mediums with quite a low request of adaptation[...]"
- ^ "Oracle Database 10g Express Edition". Oracle Technology Network. Oracle Corp.. http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/xe/index.html. Retrieved 2010-07-25. "Oracle Database 10g Express Edition (Oracle Database XE) is an entry-level, small-footprint database based on the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 code base that's free to develop, deploy, and distribute [...]"
- ^ "Oracle Data Sheet" (PDF). http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/xe/pdf/dbxe_faq.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ "Oracle Database Lite 10g". oracle.com. Oracle Corporation. http://www.oracle.com/database/lite_edition.html. Retrieved 2009-06-23. "[...] for developing, deploying and managing applications for mobile and embedded environments."
- ^ Greenwald, Rick; Stackowiak, Robert; Stern, Jonathan (2007). Oracle Essentials: Oracle Database 11g. Essential Series (4 ed.). O'Reilly Media. p. 31. ISBN 9780596514549. http://books.google.com/?id=EmvWP1vgTsYC. Retrieved 2010-06-08. "Today, Oracle offers other embedded databases including TimesTen, Berkeley DB, and Oracle Database Lite."
- ^ http://www.oracle.com/pls/db112/portal.portal_db?selected=11
- ^ "Oracle and Secerno". Oracle Corporation. 2010. http://www.oracle.com/secerno/index.html. Retrieved 2010-10-18. "Secerno product[:] Oracle Database Firewall"
- ^ "Oracle Database Fiorewall: Frequently Asked Questions". Oracle Technology Network. Oracle Corporation. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/database-firewall/overview/index.html. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "It is designed to prevent SQL Injection attacks [...] It is [...] deployed on the network to monitor and secures database traffic coming through the network."
- ^ Oracle database options
- ^ Alapati, Sam R.; Charles Kim (2007). Oracle database 11g: new features for DBAs and developers. Expert's voice in Oracle. Apress. p. 153. ISBN 9781590599105. http://books.google.com/books?id=14ZH0eZV6G8C. Retrieved 2011-05-10.
- ^ Adkoli, Anand; Rama Velpuri (2002). Oracle9i for Windows handbook. Oracle Press Series (2 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 375. ISBN 9780072190922. http://books.google.com/books?id=L8K5BAt7kzcC. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "Oracle Change Management Pack[:] A new feature available on Oracle9i allows you to track and make changes to database object definitions. You can compare two objects in different schemas or different databases."
- ^ Choi, Phil (2005). "Oracle Database Change Management Pack". Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts, 10g Release 2 (10.2). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B14099_19/manage.1012/b16241/Management_Pack_Access.htm. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "This pack gives database administrators the ability to evaluate, plan for, and implement database schema changes to support new application requirements without error and data loss while minimizing downtime."
- ^ See download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/license.111/b28287/options.htm#CIHBDGAD
- ^ "Real Application Testing Overview". Oracle Corporation. August 2007. http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/manageability/database/pdf/wp07/owp_real_application_testing_11g.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-19.
- ^ See "Term licenses" at http://oraclestore.oracle.com/ for various markets/countries.
- ^ "Oracle Programmer/2000" (PDF). Oracle Corporation. http://www.alise.lv/ALISE/mrktinfo.nsf/6022a43db1063796c22566de00392130/420e0389f8672386c225645e00344ecb/$FILE/Oracle%20Programmer%202000%20data%20sheet%20Feb97.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-25. "Oracle Programmer/2000 is a suite of programmatic interfaces that allows you to access and manipulate Oracle7 data and schemas. Programmer/2000 provides a rich set of interfaces and supports many programming languages, allowing the programmer to use the programming language and the programming paradigm of choice."
- ^ "Other Ways of Working with Oracle". Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/A58617_01/server.804/a53717/ch1.htm#index0015. Retrieved 2009-02-25. "Programmer/2000[:] a set of 3GL programming language interfaces"
- ^ Desbiens, Frédéric; Peter Moskovits, Philipp Weckerle (2009). Oracle WebCenter 11g Handbook: Build Rich, Customizable Enterprise 2.0 Applications. Osborne ORACLE Press Series. McGraw Hill Professional. 189. ISBN 9780071629324. http://books.google.com/books?id=mjiiLhfQ4s8C. Retrieved 2011-05-09. "Oracle WebCenter Suite includes Content Server [...]"
- ^ Alapati, Sam R. (2005) Expert Oracle database 10g administration Apress p. 845 ISBN 9781590594513 http://books.google.com/?id=xxx0KAwY_ZMC&pg=PA845&lpg=PA845&dq=ASH++Active+Session+History. Retrieved 2009-05-25 "... ASH records very recent session activity (within the last five or ten minutes)."
- ^ "Oracle Database Workload Performance Measurement and Tuning Toolkit". Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology 3: 371–381. 2006. http://google.com/scholar?q=cache:uPdNes3VcSAJ:scholar.google.com/. Retrieved 2010-02-05. "Statspack utility consists of a set of Programming Language/Structured Query Language (PL/SQL) scripts, executed against the database, in order to gather, store data and metrics, and generates reports of the database activity"
- ^ "Overview of Oracle Data Pump". Download.oracle.com. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/server.111/b28319/dp_overview.htm#SUTIL100. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ Greenwald, Rick; Robert Stackowiak, Jonathan Stern (November 2007). Oracle Essentials: Oracle Database 11g. O'Reilly. p. 184. ISBN 978-0596514549. "The Database Resource Manager (DRM) was first introduced in Oracle 8i [...] to place limits on the amount of computer resources that can be used [...]"
- ^ Ault, Mike; Liu, Daniel; Tumma, Madhu (2003). Don Burleson. ed. Oracle Database 10g New Features: Oracle 10g Reference for Advanced Tuning & Administration. Oracle In-Focus series. Rampant TechPress. p. 51. ISBN 9780974071602. http://books.google.com/books?id=ufz5-hXw2_UC. Retrieved 2011-11-16. "In the fast-start parallel rollback method, the background process SMON [...] rolls back a set of transactions in parallel [...] This feature is particularly useful when a system has transactions that run a long time before committing [...]"
- ^ "Feature Availability by Edition". Oracle Database Licensing Information 11g Release 1 (11.1) Part Number B28287-08. Oracle Corporation. May 2008. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/license.111/b28287/editions.htm#CJACGHEB. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- ^ Nanda, Arup. "Auditing Tells All". Oracle Database 10g: The Top 20 Features for DBAs. Oracle Corporation. http://www.oracle.com/technology/pub/articles/10gdba/week10_10gdba.html. Retrieved 2008-08-19. "...the standard audit (available in all versions) and the fine-grained audit (available in Oracle 9i and up ..."
- ^ Oracle.com
- ^ "Oracle Product Accessibility Status: Database Server Enterprise Edition". Oracle Corporation. 2 June 2008. http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/templates/t1286.html. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
- ^ "Oracle Data Provider for .NET". Oracle Corporation. http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/windows/odpnet/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-07. "The Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET) features optimized ADO.NET data access to the Oracle database."
- ^ Greenwald, Rick; Stackowiak, Robert; Alam, Maqsood; Bhuller, Mans (2011). Achieving Extreme Performance with Oracle Exadata. Osborne ORACLE Press Series. McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech. p. 328. ISBN 9780071752596. http://books.google.com/books?id=HFJzNfWonPQC. Retrieved 2011-10-12. "The UCP is a Java-basd connection pool that supports JDBC, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA) connection types from any middle tier."
- ^ "Virtual Private Database" appears listed as a feature available as part of Oracle Enterprise Edition in: Manmeet Ahluwalia; et al. (October 2009). "Feature Availability by Edition". Oracle Database Licensing Information 11g Release 2 (11.2). Oracle Corporation. http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E11882_01/license.112/e10594/editions.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- ^ Kate, Aniket; Menezes, Bernard; Singh, Ashish (December 2005). "Security/Privacy Issues in Providing Database as a Service". Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on E-Governance, ICEG 2005. Lahore: Lahore University of Management Sciences. pp. 156–159. http://www.iceg.net/2006/download/E-Governance.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-09. "Oracle's Virtual Private Database (VPD) [...] is a practically implemented model for fine-grained access control wherein one or more security policies are attached to each table and view in the database. These polices are sets of functions coded in PL/SQL, C or Java. A user query that accesses a table or view having a security policy, is dynamically and transparently modified by appending a predicate. This predicate is returned by the policy function for the relation/view and is a function of the user who has fired the query. A secure application context is created for each user at log in."
- ^ "Advanced MetaLink" (PDF). http://www.oracle.com/global/tr/support/051006_ADVANCEDMETALINK_CUSTOMER.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ Rea, Stephen (16 September 2008). "Upgrading Oracle 188.8.131.52 to 10.2.0.3 on AIX 5.2". University of Arkansas. http://www.uaex.edu/srea/10gR2_upgrade.txt. Retrieved 2009-08-11. "Run the PreInstall checklist for Oracle 10.2.0 (Metalink Note 250262.1: RDA 4 - Health Check / Validation Engine Guide): The Health Check Validation Engine (HCVE) rule set for Oracle Database 10g R2 (10.2.0) PreInstall (AIX) is described in: Oracle.com"
- ^ About the case in Hungarian
- ^ Kreines, David C. (2005). Oracle DBA Pocket Guide. Pocket References Series. O'Reilly Media, Inc.. p. 16. ISBN 9780596100490. http://books.google.com/books?id=4FB1pZetQ-IC. Retrieved 2010-08-10. "Oracle products are currently licensed using two different licensing models: Per Named User. [...] Per Processor [...]"
- ^ "Oracle Technology Global Price List". Oracle Corporation. 2010-06-14. http://www.oracle.com/corporate/pricing/technology-price-list.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- ^ "Processor Core Factor Table". http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/contracts/processor-core-factor-table-070634.pdf. Retrieved 2011-04-08.
- ^ Oracle Database Licensing Information Database Editions
- ^ Licensing Restrictions
- ^ "Installation centos; official Oracle Wiki". Wiki.oracle.com. http://wiki.oracle.com/page/Installing+Oracle+on+CentOS. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ "Installation on Debian-based systems; official Oracle Wiki". Wiki.oracle.com. http://wiki.oracle.com/page/Installing+Oracle+on+Debian+%2F+Kubuntu+%2F+Ubuntu. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- Loney, Kevin (17 December 2008). Oracle Database 11g The Complete Reference (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 1368. ISBN 0071598758. http://www.mhprofessional.com/product.php?isbn=0071598758. Retrieved 2009-09-05
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