Portland, Victoria


Portland, Victoria

Infobox Australian Place | type = city
name = Portland
state = vic


caption = Portland beach, breakwater and harbour
lga = Shire of Glenelg
postcode = 3305
pop = 10,371 (2006)
est = 1834
stategov =
fedgov =
dist1 = 362
location1= Melbourne

The city of Portland is the oldest European settlement in what is now the state of Victoria, Australia. It is the main urban centre of the Shire of Glenelg. It is located on Portland Bay.

History

The bay was named in 1800 by the British navigator James Grant, who sailed in the "Lady Nelson" along the Victorian coast. "I also distinguished the Bay by the name of Portland Bay, in honour of His Grace the Duke of Portland," wrote Grant. The bay, the only deep sea port between Adelaide and Melbourne, offers a sheltered anchorage against the often wild weather of Bass Strait.

By the early 1800s, whalers and sealers were working the treacherous waters of Bass Stait and Portland Bay provided good shelter and fresh water which enabled them to establish the first white settlement in the area. Whaling captain William Dutton is known to have been resident in the Portland Bay area when the Henty clan arrived and is said to have provided seed potatoes for the Henty garden. In 1834 Edward Henty and his family, who had migrated from England to Western Australia in 1829, then moved to Van Diemen's Land, ferried some of their stock across the Strait in search of the fine grazing land of the Western District.

After a voyage of 34 days the Thistle arrived at Portland Bay on November 19, 1834. Edward Henty was only 24 years old and early in December, using a plough he had made himself, he turned the first sod in Victoria. The next voyage of the Thistle brought his brother Francis with additional stock and supplies, and in a short time houses were erected and fences put up.

They established a landing place at Portland Bay which eventually became the town of Portland. There they were "discovered" by the explorer Thomas Mitchell in 1836. The settlement was illegal since Victoria had not yet been opened for settlement. The Hentys also farmed in areas known as "Australia Felix"," around Casterton.

By 1838, land auctions had been authorised from Sydney and Charles Tyers surveyed the Portland township in 1839. A Post Office was opened on December 4, 1841. Citation
last = Premier Postal History | title = Post Office List | url = https://www.premierpostal.com/cgi-bin/wsProd.sh/Viewpocd.w?

access-date = 2008-04-11 ]

Gunditjmara

The Gunditjmara are the traditional inhabitants of the south west, taking in what is now Portland. They were present when the early commercial sealers like William Dutton arrived and when the Henty family created what would become Victoria’s first permanent European settlement. It has been argued whether Dutton was first, but he was considered to be somewhat itinerant by the establishment of the era and not the discoverer of this deepwater bay and fertile hinterland. Henty sowed the first Victorian wheat crop on cliff top land, known today as ‘The Ploughed Field’. Footnote: Victoria was not proclaimed a colony until 1851.

While the Hentys landed ashore in Portland on November 19 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman. From settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, and this gained some administrative status prior to separation from New South Wales and declaration as the Colony of Victoria in 1851. Gunditjmara still reside in and around the district; they are renowned in scientific circles for their early aquaculture development at nearby Lake Condah. Physical remains such as the weirs and fish traps are to be found in Lake Condah, which is to the south of Hamilton.

The Gunditjmara were the only settled Aboriginal people in Australia, living in small circular stone huts.

Portland has sevreal planted Norfolk Pine trees.

Proclaimed a city

Portland was proclaimed a city on Monday October 28, 1985, in the presence of Their Royal Highnesses, The Prince and Princess of Wales. Today, Portland is a town of 9,820 residents.Census 2006 AUS | id = UCL243200 | name = Portland (Urban Centre/Locality) | quick = on | accessdate = 2008-02-28]

Portland is in the Victorian Legislative Assembly electoral district of South West Coast, the Western Province of the Victorian Legislative Council and the federal Division of Wannon. Its postcode is 3305.

Economy

Port

Through the 19th century Portland developed to become an important fishing port providing for the town and later, with the connection of the railway, to the region as far afield as Ballarat and eventually Melbourne. Barracouta, Australian salmon and crayfish (now southern rock lobster) were the main catches with many fishermen working the bay, around the Lawrence Rocks and in the season, Bridgewater Bay. Portland harbour enabled the development of the woolgrowing industry of the Western District, but has eventually it lost its primacy to facilitiesat Geelong. Even in western Victoria, Portland fell behind Warrnambool as the main commercial centre. In the 20th century Portland's role as a port revived, and its economy was also boosted by the tourism industry and an aluminium smelter.

The port of Portland was sold in 1996 by the State Government to a group including the listed New Zealand company Infratil & the Scott Corporation (owned by Allan Scott), the first privatisation of port facilities in Australia. Since then, it has been traded a number of times and is now owned by two institutional investors - the publicly listed Australian Infrastructure Fund and Utilities Trust of Australia, a private infrastructure fund - both of which are managed by Hastings Funds Management.

As new supertankers have emerged, Portland, along with Hastings in Western Port Bay was proposed as an alternative to the controversial plans for deepening of Melbourne's shallower Port Phillip. The plans are aimed at maintaining Victoria's shipping status (since Melbourne has become Australia' busiest port, the Victorian economy relies heavily on the import and export of goods). Due to environmental reasons, the plan to deepen Port Phillip has been heavily criticised, whereas Portland offers some of the necessary infrastructure with minimum environmental impact.

NOTE: The Port of Portland has received major assistance through public funding of an $A18million overpass which gives better access to the port for heavytraffic The Glenelg Shire Council has recently adopted (http://www.glenelg.vic.gov.au/Files/FinalReportPortlandCoastalInfrastructurePlan.pdf] a plan for the redesign and development of the foreshore precinct including a new multi purpose marina in the north-west corner of the harbour.

Portland Aluminium

Alcoa is Victoria's largest exporter. The Portland aluminium smelter is located in Portland in South West Victoria. The smelter was commissioned in 1987 and is managed by Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals for Portland Aluminium (a joint venture project between Alcoa, CITIC and Marubeni).

Portland is Australia's third largest aluminium smelter, with a capacity of around 352,000 tonnes of aluminium per annum. The majority of Portland's production is supplied to the export market.

The Portland Aluminium smelter, in conjunction with Alcoa's Point Henry smelter, produce about 30% of Australia's total aluminium.

Portland Aluminium partners:
*Alcoa (55%)
*CITIC (22.5%)
*Marubeni (22.5%)

The Fishing Industry Today

Portland today is the home of a varied professional fishing fleet of approximately 60 vessels, harvesting a wide variety of sustainable, commercial species.Trawlers target deepsea finfish such as Rockling, Hoki, BlueEye Trevalla and more, while Southern Rock Lobster, Giant Crab, Abalone, Squid, Wrasse and others are also landed in significant quantities. The industry is a significant employer and directly generates approx. $A30+million in export and domestic earnings for the town with major flow-on benefits through local seafood processing (both export and domestic), transport & engineering services, fuel supplies and other ancillary industries. An abalone hatchery has been established on the shores of Portland Bay and apart from some current difficulties, is likely to be an indicator of future seafood production. Easy access to prime locations supports a flourishing amateur angling fraternity, with many locals and tourists regularly enjoying a fresh catch of King George Whiting, Snapper, Kingfish, Flathead, Morwong and in recent times, Bluefin Tuna.

Vestas Portland

The first blades from the Vestas Portland plant were produced in July 2005 and the plant was officially commissioned in August 2005. The facility cost $9 million, and has a capacity of 225 blades (75 blade sets) per annum.Cite web|url=http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/domino/Web_Notes/newmedia.nsf/955cbeae7df9460dca256c8c00152d2b/74b55363f2ea4558ca257058000e5752!OpenDocument|title=New Wind Farm Blade Factory is a Boost for Portland|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=Victorian Legistlation and Parliamentary Documents|year=2005|author=Victorian Legistlation and Parliamentary Documents] Vestas began manufacturing wind turbines in 1979. Their core business comprises the development, manufacture, sale, marketing and maintenance of wind power systems. The blade manufacturing facility in Portland worked in conjunction with their assembly plant in Tasmania which has since been closed down. In August 2007, Vestas announced it will close its near new Portland blade manufacturing plant with the loss of 130 jobs.Cite web|url=http://www.theage.com.au/news/National/Debate-over-wind-energy-factory-closure/2007/08/22/1187462306939.htm|title=Green energy market unviable: Vestas|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=the age.com.au|year=2007|author=the age.com.au]

Portland Wind Project

The Portland Wind Energy Project, PWEPCite web|url=http://www.freehills.com.au/publications/publications_1573.asp#portland|title=Portland Wind Energy Project to commence|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=Freehills.com|year=2004|author=Freehills.com] involves the development of four wind farms at Cape Bridgewater, Cape Nelson, Cape Sir William Grant and Yambuk in south-west Victoria. As one of the biggest wind farm developments in the Southern Hemisphere, the 195MW project proponents claimed that it will deliver major environmental, economic and social benefits.

The four Portland sites are considered by the proponents of the project to be ideal wind farm locations, with consistently strong winds, access for construction vehicles and machinery, a nearby connection to the National Electricity Grid, compatible farming activities and a large land area. By August 2007 construction was underway but there is still ongoing substantial resident opposition to the project regarding the planning process enabling this development and the visual impact of towers and the power lines. [ [http://www.spec.com.au/?sp=r2005&id=5062 Portland Observer: 'Sparks to fly over powerlines' - 13 April 2005] ]

The 195MW project will produce enough clean electricity to power about 125,000 homes each year, equal to more than 7 per cent of Victoria’s residential electricity demand, or powering a city the size of Geelong. The project is being developed by Pacific Hydro.Cite web|url=http://www.pacifichydro.com.au/OurEnergy/WindEnergy/PortlandWindProject/tabid/134/Default.aspx |title=Portland Wind Project|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=Pacific Hydro|year=2007|author=Pacific Hydro]

Geothermal Power

Geothermal heating was used to heat more than 19,000 square metres of municipal buildings, a motel and the town 2000m³ swimming pool in Portland. Commissioned in 1983, naturally hot groundwater (58°C) was extracted from a bore (1400m deep) at a rate of 90 litres/second.Cite web|url=http://www.rise.org.au/info/Tech/geo/index.html|title=History of Geothermal Power Systems|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=RISE - Research Institute for Sustainable Energy|year=2006|author=RISE - Research Institute for Sustainable Energy] The total capacity of the Portland facility, operated by the Glenelg Shire was 10.4 MW before being closed down in April 2006. [ [http://www.glenelg.vic.gov.au/Page/page.asp?page_Id=1029 Glenelg Shire Council: Temporary Measures to Replace Bore - 19/4/2006] ] Cite web|url=http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/nrenmp.nsf/childdocs/-F3E8F7FE27CEB5ABCA2570030000808E?open|title=Geothermal Energy - Discovering Victoria's Potential|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=Department of Primary Industries|year=2007|author=Department of Primary Industries]

Tourism

The Great South West Walk is a 250 km walking track that begins at the Visitor Information Centre, Portland. Designed as a long distance walking track, it is also ideal for short walks and day walks. The walk travels though forests, river gorges, cliff tops and sublime bays. Established in 1981 the walk is administered, maintained and promoted by 'The Friends of the Great South West Walk Inc', a wholly volunteer organisation, in partnership with Parks Victoria.

The Portland Cable Trams was established as a community organisation in June 1996, with the view to laying light rail to carry refurbished diesel powered trams, as both an outlet for rail and heritage enthusiasts and a tourist venture. The tram is now on track and has carries passengers along the scenic route from Henty Park to the RSL Memorial Lookout, at the old North Portland Water Tower. The route takes in the natural wetlands (tidal) of Fawthrop Lagoon Park, the foreshore, cliff tops and botanic gardens. The Portland Cable Tram group is planning additional tram carriages and engines, for greater capacity and to provide more reliability and maintenance support options. Volunteer drivers and conductors provide a commentary about Portland's significant past and present day buildings, harbour and sights. Over 12,000 passengers were carried on the tram during the 2006-07 financial year.Cite web|url=http://www.portlandcabletrams.com.au/|title=General Happenings|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=Portland Cable Trams|author=Portland Cable Trams]

Maritime Museum

The Portland Maritime Museum was developed to house the Portland Lifeboat built in 1858. The Lifeboat is one of the oldest lifeboats remaining in the world. Famous for rescuing 19 survivors of the Admella shipwreck in 1859, and the Julia shipwreck in 1863. The Admella, a steamship of 392 tons, was sailing from Adelaide to Melbourne when it was smashed onto a reef off Carpenter Rocks in South Australia with a loss of 89 lives. The Portland Lifeboat and crew were taken to the scene, and were pivotal in the rescue operations. On display is a real whale skeleton, and the famed 'Portland Lifeboat' used in the Admella rescue.

Transport

Road

Portland is 362 km west of Melbourne via the Princes Highway. It is connected to Hamilton by the Henty Highway.

Rail

Portland is served by the standard gauge Maroona-Portland line, which branches from the main Western standard gauge line. Until 1995 the line was broad gauge, the line having been opened on 19 December, 1877 ["The Centenary of the Opening of the Ararat to Portland Railway" Turton, Keith W. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, October/November, 1977 pp217-239;241-268] . Passenger movements are by coach to Warrnambool where passengers transfer to rail, the last direct passenger train being from Ararat - Portland on September 12 1981 operated by a DRC railcar.cite journal | year = 1997 | month = March | title = Rail Passenger Service Withdrawals Since 1960 | author = Chris Banger | journal = Newsrail | publisher = Australian Railway Historical Society (Victorian Division) | pages = pages 77 - 82 ] Grain was the most common commodity delivered by rail from the Wimmera.

Transport Minister Peter Batchelor, opened a $15m overpass in Cliff Street constructed for VicRoads in October 2006. [cite web
url=http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/domino/Web_Notes/newmedia.nsf/798c8b072d117a01ca256c8c0019bb01/587759a52cb3438dca257214000c1d76!OpenDocument
title=BATCHELOR IN PORTLAND OPENING NEW RAIL/ROAD GRADE SEPARATION
work=Media Release: MINISTER FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT
date=October 26, 2006
publisher=www.legislation.vic.gov.au
accessdate=2008-07-02
] The government committed to the project in May 2003, and work begun in 2005. [cite web
url=http://www.dpc.vic.gov.au/domino/Web_Notes/newmedia.nsf/b0222c68d27626e2ca256c8c001a3d2d/8ef5f941c0e645e5ca2570c300009e15!OpenDocument
title=WORKS BEGIN ON $15 MILLION CLIFF STREET OVERPASS PROJECT
publisher=www.dpc.vic.gov.au
date=November 23, 2005
work=Media Release: MINISTER FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT
accessdate=2008-07-02
] The overpass allows road transports and trains continuous access to the port; moving commodities like grain, fertiliser, wind-farm blades, aluminium ingots and woodchips. Port activity is projected to increase significantly and the overpass, which had been discussed since 1991, was finally installed. The project was completed three months ahead of schedule because of the drought and less than the expected delays due to rain.

Freight operator Pacific National indefinitely suspended all rail services to the town of Portland in 2004, impacting local companies including Portland Aluminium, transport company Kalari, and freight broker Anchor Logistics. Portland container traffic was conveyed between Maroona and Portland on grain services twice a week, but Pacific National said that due to the drought there were no trains to attach the loading to. On the route the price differential between rail and road is $12.97 per tonne in rail's favour. [cite web
url=http://web.archive.org/web/20050124083914/http://www.spec.com.au/display.asp?Id=4613
title=Freight off the rails Pacific National suspends rail services to Portland
work=Portland Observer
date=December17, 2004
author=Bill Meldrum
publisher=web.archive.org
accessdate=2008-07-02
(via Internet Archive)
] Pacific National closed their Portland operations in March 2008, with GrainCorp leasing a limited number of locomotives and rolling stock from them, but favour transporting grain to the Port of Geelong instead. [cite web
url=http://www.spec.com.au/index.asp?sp=2&id=8879
title=State loses focus on Portland line
work=Portland Observer
date=June 30, 2008
author=Bill Meldrum
publisher=www.spec.com.au
accessdate=2008-07-02
] In September 2008 it was announced that freight traffic would restart using the line from Portland, with operator El Zorro signing a multi-million deal with miner Iluka Resources to carry containerised mineral sands to Melbourne, with Iluka saying rail transport was cheaper than road. [cite web
url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/09/03/2353873.htm
title=Rail freight back on Portland-Maroona line
work=ABC News
publisher=www.abc.net.au
date=September 3, 2008
accessdate=2008-09-04
]

Aviation

Portland is served by the Portland Airport airport codes|PTJ|YPOD which is served by one commercial airline, Sharp Airlines. Sharp Airlines is a small charter company formed in Hamilton (1990), (ironically, where Reginald Ansett and later Brian Grey Compass Airlines started their respective businesses) and started flying regularly out of Portland to Essendon Airport. They have flights from Hamilton and Warrnambool to Melbourne. Sharp Airlines started in Portland by flying staff and employees from Portland Aluminium to Avalon Airport, so they could link to the Point Henry Smelter near Geelong. With significant demand and the support of the community, non-charter, passenger flights were also added. Sharp has established a maintenance hub at Portland Airport, so support staff could service the growing commuter and tourist airline.

Community

Radio

Community Radio station 3RPC-FM 99.3, is located opposite The Arts Company, on the corner of Richmond Street, and broadcasts to the majority of the Shire of Glenelg. This too lends itself to the promotion of the city's various performances, exhibitions and cultural events. Each week volunteer presenters write and produce many hours of on-air entertainment covering arts, culture, sport, community news and special interest programs.

Portland tourist radio station is WAVE-FM, broadcasting easy listening music, news and information about local attractions.

Arts & culture

Portland has a vibrant cultural diversity, with many potters, painters, musicians, quilters, lead lighters, wood-turners, photographers, cinematographers, multi-media artists, print-makers, jewellers, sculptors, actors and writers. Many of these talents come together under the banners of CEMA Inc (Council for Encouragement of Music and the Arts), or the associated The Arts Company.

The Portland Art Centre, on the corner of Glenelg and Bentinck Streets, incorporates a gallery and theatre, where local and visiting performances are regularly staged.Cite web|url=http://www.portlandcema.org.au/arts_company/arts_company.htm|title=Portland Arts Company|accessyear=2007|accessmonthday=August 31|publisher=Portland Arts Company|author=Portland Arts Company] The Arts Company is located in the heritage precinct of Portland in refurbished old buildings in Julia Street. Along with community workshops and studios, local artists' works are also for sale. The Arts Company also has accommodation and studios for the "artist in residence" programs.

Festivals

In November during the weekend preceding the Melbourne Cup, the city comes alive with the Portland Bay Festival - featuring the 'Break Fest', a youth rock concert, a major annual Rotary Art Show (in the Civic Hall) and the celebrated 3 Bays Marathon, Relay & Walk.

port

The town has an Australian rules football team competing in the Western Border Football League which has won the Premiership in 2006 and 2007.

References

External links

* [http://www.glenelg.vic.gov.au/ Glenelg Shire Council]
* [http://www.portlandcema.org.au Council for Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA).]
* [http://www.portofportland.com.au/ Port of Portland]
* [http://www.portlandcabletrams.com.au Portland Cable Trams]
* [http://www.portlandcema.org.au/arts_company/arts_company.htm Portland Arts Company]
* [http://www.greatsouthwestwalk.com/ Great South West Walk Surrounding Portland]
* [http://www.portlandnow.net.au/ PortlandNow - a GSC - GCTI project]
* [http://www.spec.com.au/ Portland Observer & Guardian]
* [http://www.mccallum-collection.org/ Historical Photographs Vern McCallum Collection]


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